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Institutional Aspects of Cooperation Within the Silk Road Arctic Belt

Institutional Aspects of Cooperation Within the Silk Road Arctic Belt

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The authors propose to consider international cooperation within the Silk Road Arctic Belt, a part of the ‘One Belt, One Road‘ initiative, as a new institutional form of economic partnership, based primarily on the multinational collaborative engagement of the parties involved. The intention of the parties not to pursue the expansion policy of their ideological or political systems and values in the project implementation process and at the same time to seek consensus to ensure their national interests is a characteristic feature of this cooperation. 13% of the world's possible oil and up to 30% of natural gas reserves are on the Arctic seabed. The delivery time of goods through the Northern Sea Route is 6–19 days shorter and considerably less expensive than the existing route via the Suez Canal. The focus on economic development of the Arctic region is one of the main features of Russia's industrial policy. Its international cooperation in the Arctic zone is based on the traditional corporative and state-by-state framework. It is based on the Federal Law ‘On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation’ of December 31, 2014 No. 488-FZ. China believes that participation in the development of the Arctic region will stimulate modernization in areas where the project is of strategic importance for the PRC. The white paper, published on January 26, 2018, outlines the basic principles and parameters of China's Arctic policy. Beijing explains its interest in the Arctic by the importance of this region for all mankind. It concludes on this basis that all States of the world, regardless of their geographical location, should engage in the development of the Arctic region. Russia's cooperation with China in the Arctic is seen as an integral part of the joint integration of the Greater Eurasian Partnership and the ‘One Belt, One Road’ initiatives with due regard for Russian economic interests. Development of the Northern Sea Route infrastructure and of its freight traffic to make it a globally competitive transport artery is seen as the core of cooperation. It is advisable to consider establishment of a Russia-China consortium to implement Arctic projects.

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Innovation, Economic Order and Power

Innovation, Economic Order and Power

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The interrelations between innovations and economic order of society are investigated. The innovative immunity of the Russian economy is stated. It is shown that the lack of innovation is a problem of economic order or institutional model of the economy, which form the structure of motivations for economic behavior. The problem that is investigated in this paper is why the economic order (institutional environment) hinders innovation activity and new technologies. Economic order is the result of the motivation of economic behavior. Economic profit plays a major role in the incentive structure. Investments, innovations, technological progress, fall into the structure of interests and motives of economic agents to the extent that they contribute to maximizing profits. The models of economic profit creation are considered. Economic returns arise either as a result of the creation of advantages in resource efficiency or as a result of asymmetries or inequalities in the distribution of power. Analyzed the problem of the dominant of the dominant profit or income in the national economy. It is shown that in the Russian economy the dominant condition for the creation of entrepreneurial income is the possession of economic power. The reason is that access to power is a relatively more affordable, profitable and cheap economic benefit for a market agent than innovation and new technologies. The result of investments in power is the formation of the "economy of power". The author reveals the negative impact of the government economy on the incentives for innovation. The crisis of the dominant model of economic order is shown. The necessity of power policy, the purpose of which is to eliminate the excess of private power as a source of income generation, is substantiated.

Views: 244

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Landscape Cenosis Sustainability of Enterprise

Landscape Cenosis Sustainability of Enterprise

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

Sustainability has become a critical area of company management with a holistic approach and a synergistic consideration of the economic, environmental, and social aspects of an enterprise. Given the growing importance of sustainable development, theories of sustainability in firms have evolved over the past decades, the logic of which allows for some generalizations and formulating more promising paths of development. This article provides an overview of evolving theories linking sustainability with enterprises in the context of their impact on prospective research in this area from a position of focus on resource limitations. The article shows that the main theories related to sustainability go through a logical chain of development from «corporate social responsibility» to a «green economy», which led to the formation of integrated approaches of a coevolution type and an extended view of production as a cenosis. The cenological landscape of enterprise sustainability allows you to create effective management approaches and evaluate solutions in this area in the context of system efficiency.

Views: 222

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The Practice of Implementation of Best Available Technologies in the Russian Oil and Gas Complex

The Practice of Implementation of Best Available Technologies in the Russian Oil and Gas Complex

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The article analyzes the practice of introducing the best available technologies in the Russian oil and gas complex, which are a tool for encouraging enterprises of this complex to reduce the negative impact on the environment, and unlike other tools aimed at ecologizing production and economic activities of oil and gas enterprises, which are not expensive, and are not only energy efficient, but also environmentally friendly. The role of the best available technologies in the oil and gas complex has been revealed and the necessity of their introduction by the oil and gas enterprises of Russia in the context of the intensification of the development processes of the "green" economy has been substantiated. The prerequisites for the transition of the Russian oil and gas enterprises to the best available technologies have been formed, among which, first of all, toughening the requirements of environmental legislation and the simultaneous development of a system of state support for enterprises engaged in the introduction of environmentally friendly technologies in their industries. The main stages of the transition of the Russian oil and gas complex to the principles of the best available technologies are considered. At the first, preparatory stage, which began in 2015, the regulatory framework was created. The practical transition of oil and gas enterprises should begin in 2019 in the context of the transition to a system of integrated environmental permits to polluters. To complete this process is planned to 2034. It presents incentive measures proposed by the state in order to accelerate the modernization and transition to the principles of the best available technologies of enterprises of the oil and gas complex of Russia. An algorithm is proposed for introducing the best available technologies in Russian enterprises of the oil and gas industry, which involves the effective interaction of state bodies and oil and gas enterprises through regulatory and informational support.

Views: 168

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Restructuring of the Electricity Supply Market, as a Basic Vector of Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Botswana Case Study

Restructuring of the Electricity Supply Market, as a Basic Vector of Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Botswana Case Study

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The article substantiates the importance of restructuring the energy supply market in developing countries, in the example of Botswana as a country that has not implemented any sectorial reforms for improving the performance of its energy sector. The various levels and forms of market structures are discussed and comparisons are made with other developing countries around the world, taking into account the country specific challenges faced by Botswana. The article suggests that restructuring of the sector should be a key priority in the implementation of mechanisms for improving the level of energy security in the country. The significance of energy sector regulation that is autonomous and transparent is also discussed as a key factor for facilitating the successful implementation of energy supply market restructuring.

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Projects of the Public-Private Partnership in the Social Sphere of the Russian Federation

Projects of the Public-Private Partnership in the Social Sphere of the Russian Federation

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The article reviews the public-private partnership (PPP) project development in the social sphere in the Russian Federation. It describes different approaches to the definition of the PPPs and the attributes in which they differ. The article emphasizes the specific aspects of the PPP projects implementation in social sphere dependant on heterogeneous demand, longer periods of the projects recoupment, complexity of forecasting the consumer flow and social effect assessment. It provides the examples of successful deliveries on the PPP projects and shows the potentialities and advantages of the PPP instruments application for the state and municipal bodies. One of the essential features of the PPP in social sphere is the fact that as a result of project implementation the citizens are to be provided with the statutory minimum of social services. The issues of risks and problems with PPP projects implementation in the sphere of public healthcare and social security hold a specific place. The statistics of PPP projects implementation by the areas of business activity, federal districts, levels, forms and phases of their execution are analyzed. The practical aspects of PPP projects implementation in social sphere of the Russian Federation by the areas of business activity, federal districts, levels, forms and phases of their execution are given consideration to. The government regulations aimed at creation and implementation of PPP projects in social sphere are attended to. The conditions of successful and effective collaboration of the government with the private sector through PPPs are described.

Views: 234

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The Priority Areas of Work on Staffing of Introduction of Project Management in Regions of Russia

The Priority Areas of Work on Staffing of Introduction of Project Management in Regions of Russia

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

Introduction of project management in activity of executive authorities and their subordinated institutions for increase in efficiency of capital investments and the solution of other questions of development is announced by one of priorities of state policy. Objectives have imposed more strict requirements to qualification of the shots responsible for realization of tasks of project management. It is especially relevant for the regions which are lagging behind in social and economic development in the territory of which there is no large business which could carry out capital investments. In this case for the region the importance of qualification of the personnel case of the public and municipal servants responsible for realization of project management critically increases. In article the high relevance of ensuring project management with qualified personnel of introduction in regions of the North Caucasian Federal District is proved. Data of sociological inspection of readiness for introduction of project management of heads of healthcare institutions, educations and cultures and also supervising their work of heads of profile executive authorities are provided. During the research it is revealed that least of all education is ready to introduction of project management. Besides, difficulties of production communication between subordinated institutions and executive authorities supervising their work become the interfering factor. The situation is aggravated by the existing funding mechanism for professional development of the public and municipal servants. Conditions of the legislation allow a possibility of a victory in competitive procedures of the performers having insufficient experience and qualification in this sphere. Article comes to the end with author's suggestions for improvement of work on staffing of project management in regions of the North Caucasian Federal District.

Views: 153

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Main Trends in Human Resource Management: National and Foreign Experience

Main Trends in Human Resource Management: National and Foreign Experience

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

This article analyses the main trends in Human Resource management that arebeing used innational and foreign companies nowadays days. At first researcher is looking into why trends are changing. The key reasons for modernization of technologies and human resources strategies are: switch to new model of business development – VUCA concept, digitalization and technologization of economy and entire system of social and work relations, economics globalization and business internationalization, the changeof paradigm in human resource management. As a result, not only, organization of the company changes but also a new vision of the worker’s abilities, their expectations and behaviors is formed. In the modern days the distinguishing trait of the employees behaviour model is the so-called «professional zipping». Success in career is no longer identified with having one profession, various experiences and ability of constant development have much more value. For this article Deloitte, «Global Human Capital Trends 2018» research findings were used as modern trends in Humans Recourse management. In the final part, strategic approaches to employee management are discusses. In addition, the «portrait» of an effective HR-Manager is presented.

Views: 334

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Human and Natural Capital Reproductive Function in the Economy of Sustainable Innovative Development: Ways of Installation into the System of Strategic Management

Human and Natural Capital Reproductive Function in the Economy of Sustainable Innovative Development: Ways of Installation into the System of Strategic Management

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The relevance of this study is determined by the constantly increasing increment of the high-quality human and natural resources importance in the modern processes of reproduction of hierarchically organized socio-economic systems. Effective strategic management of anthropological and ecological capital is a key condition for increasing the sustainability of innovative development of the economy and society. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the ways of installing human and natural capital that perform a significant reproductive function in the economy of sustainable innovative development into the system of strategic management. To achieve the goal of the study, such problematic tasks as systematization of fundamentally new approaches to the socio-economic systems’ strategic management aimed at anthropological and ecological resources incrementing, characteristics of human and natural capital that affect the degree of sustainability of socio-economic trajectories structural view, the human and natural resources innovation reproduction function specifics identification, the human and natural capital reproduction (increment) strategies in the system of managing sustainable innovative development of the economy justification and empirical verification were solved. The novelty of the author's approach consists in substantiating the directions for integrating the structural model of human and natural capital as an important resource-reproduction component of sustainable innovation development of the economy into the system of strategic management. The results of the author’s developments in the area of the human and natural capital reproductive function in the strategic management system installation approbation can serve as the basis for the formation of an effective regulatory mechanism ensuring an increased degree of sustainability of the innovation-oriented development of the economy trajectory under fluctuations of the global socio-economic system.

Views: 163

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Public Procurement of Innovation Production in Russia

Public Procurement of Innovation Production in Russia

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

Today, one of the most promising ways to transform the national economy is to use a tool for public procurement of innovative products. Nevertheless, the existing problem areas in the contract system, such as: weak demand for innovations, restrictive barriers to participation in procurement for small innovative businesses, do not allow them to fully realize their potential. The problem of introducing innovative procurement is also the lack of uniform criteria for product innovation, the need to develop a unified conceptual and categorical apparatus, on the basis of which it would be possible to formulate practical recommendations on the use of procurement of innovative and high-tech products for state and municipal needs. Laws 44-ФЗ and 223-ФЗ are tools that could allow for the process of withdrawing purchases, stimulating the production of innovative and high-tech products, for which, among other things, it seems relevant to create appropriate registers of innovative products and their producing suppliers. In addition, it is necessary to change the priority of price criteria, and when evaluating the effectiveness of procurement, consider not only the level of price reduction achieved as part of the procedures, but also the level of customer satisfaction, including through the innovative characteristics of the goods, works and services provided. Thus, it seems relevant to explore the possibility of a more active inclusion of the innovation component in the purchased goods by state and municipal customers of goods, works and services.

Views: 174

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Professional and Educational Cluster as an Ecosystem: Development in the Conditions of Digital Transformation

Professional and Educational Cluster as an Ecosystem: Development in the Conditions of Digital Transformation

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

This article is devoted to the study of the professional and educational cluster as a localized system of relationships between the enterprise and educational institutions in order to prepare the necessary personnel for it. The article shows the role of professional and educational cluster in the formation and development of human capital of the enterprise. The study reveals the content and characteristics of the professional and educational cluster from the standpoint of the ecosystems concept. The article describes the basic characteristics of the professional and educational cluster as an ecosystem, namely: the target orientation, the result of functioning, diversity and interaction of participants, the state of the environment, the processes of self-organization and dynamics of development. The emphasis made on the structural and species description of the vocational education ecosystem, which allows the use of mathematical apparatus, in particular, the Lotka-Volterra model, to describe the interaction of participants and creates opportunities for predicting of the ecosystem development. The factor of progressive change in the vocational education ecosystem is digital transformation, which requires qualitative changes in its content. It shown that sustainable professional and educational ecosystems are able to meet the needs and respond to the challenges of digital transformation due to the processes of self-development and self-organization and the associated synergetic effects.

Views: 146

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Subjective Well-Being Factors and Components of Scientists and Teaching Staff in Modern Universities

Subjective Well-Being Factors and Components of Scientists and Teaching Staff in Modern Universities

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The article presents the main results of the search phase of the subjective well-being study in social group – scientists and teaching staff of modern universities. According to the results of the April–May 2018 4 focus-groups «Subjective well-being factors of scientists and teaching staff analysis: professional identity components» with experts of the Southern Federal University, Rostov branch of the Russian customs Academy, Sberbank Corporate University in Rostov-on-don. The article presents subjective well-being of scientists and teaching staff factors, their social and professional motivation, as well as the factors of «retention» of highly qualified workers in higher education and the factors contributing to the «displacement» of the academic profession. The conclusion is made about the interdisciplinarity of subjective economic well-being, including awareness of the value and meaning of professional activity, self-esteem, positive emotions experience and feelings associated with the profession, and the relevance of these findings for management practices aimed at achieving and maintaining psychological stability, increasing productivity and self-realization of the teacherʼs personality. The results are interpreted in the methodological framework of interdisciplinary studies of sociology, economics of happiness, the human capital theory, positive psychology, macropsychology, behavioral economics.

Views: 185

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Metrics for Measuring the Effectiveness of Educational and Scientific Organizations: Problems and Prospects of Application

Metrics for Measuring the Effectiveness of Educational and Scientific Organizations: Problems and Prospects of Application

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The paper deals with the issues and possibilities of applying the quantitative estimates of effectiveness for optimization of the activities of educational and scientific organizations. The purpose of the paper is a critical revision of the dominant point of view in the economic and managerial literature, according to which the optimization of the activities of any organizations should be based on the pursuit of measurable goals and the quantification of achieved results through some indicators (metrics). The paper discusses the application of the concept of efficiency in relation to organizations. The paper makes a distinction between organizations that are managed by the entrepreneurs’ decision and organizations that are managed through bureaucratic procedures. The traditional interpretation of efficiency is relevant to the analysis of business organizations, rather than bureaucratic organizations, which include most educational and scientific organizations. Educational and scientific organizations usually do not have the goal of making a profit; therefore, the traditional interpretation of efficiency as a profit-cost ratio does not apply to them. The problem of evaluating their effectiveness is complicated by the fact that government agencies set goals for organizations that are not complementary to goals of organization members. Various indicators (metrics) are used to evaluating the effectiveness of organizations; their use in the management of organization by itself often causes the appearing of a negative effect on effectiveness of this organization. The paper discusses some of the ways which help to reduce the negative effect created by the use of metrics to manage educational and scientific organizations. A final solution to the metric traps problem must be goal of further research.

Views: 181

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Flagship Regional Universities: Framing of the Goals and Development Strategies in Context of Digital Economy

Flagship Regional Universities: Framing of the Goals and Development Strategies in Context of Digital Economy

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The article studies the processes related to the flagship universities of the South Russia in context of the modern digital economy. Last one is the one of the general factors, like mobilization government strategy, the ideology and some instruments of new public management (new managerialism), geo-economic and geo-politic competition which determine specific features of modern reforms in public sector i.e. in educational sphere. The flagship universities are expected to become one of the key element in reforming higher education to stimulate the processes of development of the digital economy. Our analysis of the programs of South Russian flagship universities allowed identifying as the unevenness of their possibilities in progress of digital skills as their weaknesses and problems in this sphere. The decisions of these problems require non-trivial approach in government policy in higher education, its financial resources for reanimation and forming new structures – the centers of education of new competency and skills for the digital economy.

Views: 173

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Reshaping Organizational Mechanisms in Higher Education: Analysis of Institutional Complementarity

Reshaping Organizational Mechanisms in Higher Education: Analysis of Institutional Complementarity

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The paper presents an attempt to analyze institutional change in higher education in Russia in the context of institutional complementarity. Institutional complementarity refers to a situation when institutions create rules (and incentives) which do not contradict each other. The author adopts a methodological approach by Bruno Amable who have classified institutional complementarity depending on competitive parameters, employment relationship, model of financial system, model of social policy, and educational model. The research findings show incoherence in the ongoing institutional reform in higher education in the Russian Federation. The reform process frequently appears as incoherent or illogical one. Rather contradictory than complementary, the elements of emerging institutions tend to motivate the agents in higher education arena to act not in line with their declared priorities. That situation affects all relevant groups of actors, including students, who are becoming demotivated towards studies and research process, and university academics (professional/teaching staff) facing enormous paperwork. One serious challenge results from the increasing necessity for part-order, or contractual arrangements for academic staff (including those within the grant policy framework and «commissioned» research agreements), that results in lack of motivation for the current teaching process.

Views: 144

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Boris Berezovsky as the Mirror of Late Brezhnevism and the 90s. («Berezovsky Time» by Peter Aven)

Boris Berezovsky as the Mirror of Late Brezhnevism and the 90s. («Berezovsky Time» by Peter Aven)

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

In the book of Peter Aven, the development of the late Soviet society and society of the 90s is analyzed through the life of Boris Berezovsky, one of the largest Russian oligarchs of the 90s. The book is a series of interviews of Peter Aven with prominent political figures, economists and journalists in Russia in the 90s who knew Berezovsky well at various stages of his life from a researcher at a Soviet scientific institute to emigration in England. These conversations reveal the features of political life and the moral principles of society in these periods. The period of late Brezhnevism is revealed as a prerequisite for market transformation and immoralism of the 1990s. This was manifested in the functioning of science and the interaction of the scientific sphere with the rest of society. The process of the formation of Berezovsky’s oligarchic empire is traced in conjunction with the privatization of the public sector of the economy and mortgage auctions. It shows the mechanisms of how Berezovsky penetrated the Kremlin and its role in the most important events of the Yeltsin period and the ascension of Vladimir Putin. On the basis of Berezovsky’s biography, his personal qualities are determined, which contributed to his rise to the economic and political Olympus and its subsequent overthrow. his ascent was made possible by the primitiveness of Russian political life in the 1990s, and the overthrow was due to the transition to the evolutionary phase in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The latter explains the failure of Berezovsky’s attempts at emigration to influence Russian society.

Views: 162

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Audit of Program and Target Management Efficiency of Regional Development on the Basis of Fuzzy Logical Models

Audit of Program and Target Management Efficiency of Regional Development on the Basis of Fuzzy Logical Models

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 9 (no. 4),

The article discusses the theoretical and methodological foundations of the performance audit, which is a tool of state financial control, which has become widespread in economically developed countries. At the same time, in Russia, in the practice of public administration, in particular, management of regional development, the theory and methodology of performance audit is not sufficiently developed, however, there is a need for its application, since the solution of large-scale national socio-economic tasks that the federal authorities should be carried out on the basis of qualitative transformations and increasing the efficiency of state activities in various sectors of the economy. On the example of diagnosing the effectiveness of the implementation of the state program of the Rostov region for financial management, the article proposes a methodology for conducting an audit of the effectiveness of the program-targeted management of regional development, based on the theory of fuzzy sets. Fuzzy logical models allow to adequately take into account the existing types of uncertainty arising in the process of implementing the program-targeted management, and to bring together all the available heterogeneous information: deterministic, statistical, linguistic and interval, which will make it possible to optimize budget expenditures on the implementation of state programs in the region.

Views: 167

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