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Family Policy Narratives in Russia: Focus on Regions

Family Policy Narratives in Russia: Focus on Regions

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 3),

The same trends that took place in the second half of the 20th century in developed countries are relevant for modern Russian families (an increase in the average age at marriage, unregistered marriages and the number of births out of wedlock, etc.). In this regard, the experience of developed countries is of particular interest for forecasting the results of family policy in Russia, since the implemented concept of supporting families largely duplicates some international practices. The dominant narrative of family politics in Russia, as reflected in the constitutional reform, is the traditional large family, on the support of which demographic policy is focused. Given the inconsistency of these ideas implementation in the United States and Germany, the Russian scenario is unlikely to have a significant effect in the form of the demographic growth rate increase. Contrary to this scenario, the National Project directly sets a goal to increase the number of births per woman to 1,7, which, according to the authorsʼ assessment, both does not take into account regional differentiation, and is not achievable. At the same time, the measures of the National Project “Demography” are aimed at large families and do not set the task of creating favorable conditions for registering a marriage in isolation from the goals of childbearing and supporting families with already adult children. Analysis of regional support measures for families with children showed their mainly formal approach to stimulating the birth rate. These measures, taking into account the regional variability of family policy, in most subjects of the Russian Federation require significant improvement. The exceptions are the regions where Social Codes for Family Support have been approved and a system of social contract has been built.

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Central Government, Market Competition and Technological Progress: Model Experiments and Stylized Examples

Central Government, Market Competition and Technological Progress: Model Experiments and Stylized Examples

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 3),

The article focuses on the lack of large-scale success in the technological modernization of the Russian economy, despite the significant efforts of the authorities in this direction. To explain this paradox, we propose the concept of Lauren Graham - Russia is characterized by a leap model of technological development due to authoritarian leadership of the country and excessive centralization of the public administration system. According to Graham, the Russians are excellent scientists and inventors, but completely incapable entrepreneurs. The lack of a mass entrepreneurial culture in the country is hindered by a lack of political democracy and a too strong vertical Central government. To test the Graham concept, the article proposes a modification of the model of technological development by Michael Cramer. The author's model takes into account not only the innovation market, but also the effect of innovative ambivalence of the state, which consists in suppressing market processes against the background of targeted encouragement of high-tech enterprises. Model calculations have shown that in the US there is an excess of competition in the market of new technologies, while in Russia there is a lack of competition. The article argues that a strong Central government in Russia is immanent to the very existence of the state due to its natural features – vast territory and cold climate. In this regard, it is necessary to implement the model of state capitalism as widely as possible, focused on the creation by the state of advanced high-tech companies-giants that become world leaders in the industry and determine its future development. The article shows that this model has already been established and successfully applied in various countries – the United States, South Korea, China, and Russia. Consequently, the Russian authorities need to determine the points of technological growth and create champion enterprises in such high-tech industries as microelectronics, aircraft engineering, biotechnology, etc.

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Evolution of the Institutional Structure of Private Money in the Form of Cryptocurrencies – Development Models and Controversy with Hayek's

Evolution of the Institutional Structure of Private Money in the Form of Cryptocurrencies – Development Models and Controversy with Hayek's

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 3),

We think that the evolution of the institutional structure of private money (in the form of cryptocurrencies) at the present stage, is substantially similar to the analogous evolution of the Internet in the mid and late 1990s, which took place against the background of the formation of various concepts and Internet companies and the parallel bubble of dot-com companies (Dot-com bubble). It was the rapid drop in the shares of most companies in the early Internet market that eventually revealed the players who had fundamental ideas and products aimed at changing the established consumption model and transforming the entire economy towards the digital economy as part of the third industrial revolution. Today's cryptocurrency market is represented by more than 7,000 different currencies, 99%1 of which, according to some cryptoinvestors, will disappear, just as many Internet companies disappeared in the early 2000s. However, the remaining ones in the coming decades may radically change technological and monetary landscape of the world economy, implementing the fourth industrial revolution concept into reality. Within the framework of the article, we set ourselves the task to analyze the most interesting and promising projects of the crypto industry that have fundamental products in various financial areas and which in the future, after the next round of growth and fall of cryptocurrencies, will remain 1% of fundamentally successful projects. It's also interesting to note, that with the creation of the first cryptocurrency in the form of bitcoin, Hayek's "private money" concept face a risk of becoming an outdated concept. With bitcoin emission becomes decentralized, we have no issuer, no reserves in other currencies, there is no possibility to reduce or regulate the money supply (all this is possible for private money, in addition, their owners may have legal obligations). In this sense, bitcoin is not private money, but something more, and we can say that all users / miners become co-owners of bitcoin. Thus, in addition to the evolution of the technologies themselves and the models of operation of cryptocurrencies, there is another fundamental question – will the cryptocurrencies follow the path of further evolution through the Hayek's and Rigel’s tradition of "private" money (with a central issuer) or through "people's" money (with decentralized emission as in bitcoin)?

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Ecological and Economic Value of the Baikal Natural Territory: Factors of Formation and Approaches to Assessment

Ecological and Economic Value of the Baikal Natural Territory: Factors of Formation and Approaches to Assessment

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 3),

The paper considers the nature management structure that has developed within the borders of the Baikal Natural Territory – a region with the status of World Heritage Site and a unique system of regulation of economic activity. The history of economic development and its accompanying environmental restrictions have equally affected the environmental situation in the region and standard of living of the local population. Despite the extensive legal framework regulating the use of natural resources within the borders of the Baikal natural territory and the reduction of anthropogenic load as a result of the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill closure, the lake and surrounding territories continues to deteriorate. Economic assessment of the natural benefits of Lake Baikal can play a crucial role in the current situation regulation: the lack of accounting contributes to adoption of management decisions that exacerbate environmental damage. Economic assessment of ecological services creates additional basis for natural goods protection, including relevant economic mechanisms. Based on the results of the sociological surveys in the region and assessment of ecological services of natural systems, the conclusions about the cost of environmental functions of natural goods in comparison with their resource functions were made. The potential of the environment forms the ecological rent, contributing in reduction the costs of environmental protection and preventing environmental damage. The necessity to consider ecological and economic assessment of natural benefits as an integral element of regional development planning is proved.

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The Labour Market in Ghana: Continuity and Change in The Fourth Republic (1992–2016)

The Labour Market in Ghana: Continuity and Change in The Fourth Republic (1992–2016)

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 3),

The labour market in any economy links the labour supply by workers to the demand of labour by employers through the wage rate. Through this mechanism, wage workers are allocated to the various sectors of the economy for the production of goods and services to satisfy human wants. Favourable institutional arrangements for wage workers in the labour market lead to high levels of productivity which results in high economic growth hence high standards of living. This paper seeks to examine the changes in the labour market for the period 1992 to 2016 that were occasioned by legislations during the period. It further analysis the effectiveness of the enacted legislations in reducing disputes in the labour market. The authors employed qualitative research strategy based on the use of both primary and secondary sources for the study to provide a historical narrative about links between labour supply and labour demand and how the linkage has been managed using statutes.

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