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Institutionalism in Russia in 1930-2010s: an inversion cycle?

Institutionalism in Russia in 1930-2010s: an inversion cycle?

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

This inquiry explores and details the slowed and often thwarted development of institutional thought in Russia, and then its later flourishing. I use Alexandr Akhiezer’s term of “inversion cycles” as a way to frame the inquiry, and relatedly, I divide the arrival and advancement of the institutional field of inquiry into two distinct phases, with the first defined as a Thwarted Phase that becomes evident in the 1930s. At the first phase (1930-80-s) there was a complete negation of both the old institutionalism and the new institutionalism. The Flourishing Phase commences with the start of the1990s and continues up to the present. At that stage we can see a broad and uncritical absorption of institutional economics ideas. I draw relationships with how some of the long term effects stemming from the October Revolution of 1917, the founding of the USSR in 1921, and the tradition of dialectical materialism derived from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, effectively thwarted the institutional approach to Economic Science for almost all of the Soviet era. The Flourishing Phase can be distinguished by the start of the transition to market economy, the emergence of independent presses, and the translation of key institutionalist documents, plus the dissemination of articles and books authored by Russian scholars¾with some reaching into university curriculums. Relatedly, and in conclusion, I offer insights into the prospects for the emergence of a distinct "Russian Institutionalism" and based upon original contributions from Russian scholars relying upon contemporary methodological principles.

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G. I. Benenson and A. D. Golitsyn: business partnership in the institutional context of Russian reality early twentieth century

G. I. Benenson and A. D. Golitsyn: business partnership in the institutional context of Russian reality early twentieth century

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

This paper is devoted to the research of the history of participation Benenson and Golitsyn in the formation of financial and industrial group Russian-British bank in the Russian Empire. It is necessary to emphasize, that in the beginning of the 20 century joint-stock companies have occupied a prevailing situation in the main industrial and financial spheres of the Russian economy already. The densities of production, made by them, was dominant in many industries, making 70-80%, and sometimes more. The formation and successful operation of the integrated companies and, above all, financial and industrial structures (groups) is undoubtedly the most important factor in improving the efficiency and sustained growth in industrial production. The analysis of participation of G. Benenson and A. Golitsyn in the activity of the Russian-English bank and joint-stock company allows to reveal most important for leading branches of the Russian economy institutional parameters of industrial business in the beginning of the 20 century, including: a) Larger or smaller independence owners in those or other kinds of enterprise activity; b) Availability business and socio-cultural connections among other businessmen; c) Efficiency to achieve a balance of individual and group interests; d) A management of the firms having more open (joint-stock structures), or closed (share structures), kind of activity. The process of the company involving in the financialindustrial groups had, sometimes, inconsistent contents, was exposed to influence both positive, and negative economic, sociocultural and political factors (economic crisises, revolution, wars, ethnic and religious conflicts etc.). However general tendency in the development of a integrated component of the Russian business carried in the beginning of the 20 century in the whole favorable orientation, potentially promoting large changes in socio economic structure of the Russian society in this period.

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Evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements in public utilities

Evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements in public utilities

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

Since early 2000s a policy of attracting private operators to public utilities, which should help to increase productivity, reduce costs, and as a result, reduce utility prices takes place in Russia. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between institutional arrangements and pricing for water and wastewater services. Applying statistical and cluster analysis to empirical data on water utilities in 13 largest cities has revealed the differences in the level and dynamics of prices for water and wastewater services in the group of public utilities and public private water utilities. In 2011-2014 the level and growth price rates in the group of public private partnerships were higher than in group of municipal water utilities. Thus, the involvement of private operators has not yet lead to the expected reduction in prices.

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Impact of informal institutions on the development integration processes

Impact of informal institutions on the development integration processes

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

The paper deals with the impact of informal institutions on the definition of the vector integration processes and the development of integration processes in the countries of the Customs Union and Ukraine. The degree of scientific development of the phenomenon in different economic schools is determined in this article. Economic mentality is a basic informal institutions, which determines the degree of effectiveness of the integration processes. This paper examines the nature, characteristics and effects of economic mentality on the economic activities of people. Ethnometrichal method allows to quantify the economic mentality that enables deeper understanding and analysis of the formation and functioning of political and economic system, especially business and management, establishing contacts with other cultures. It was measured modern Belarusian economic mentality based on international methodology Hofstede and compared with the economic mentality of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. With the help of cluster analysis congruence economic mentality of the Customs Union and Ukraine was determined. Economic mentality of these countries was also compared with the economic mentality of other countries in order to identify the main types of economic culture.

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Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.

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The "state" is out of date: the need for a new definition of the state

The "state" is out of date: the need for a new definition of the state

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

The issue of non-functional definition of the state, solely based on the comparative advantage in violence, extending over a geographic area is addressed in the paper. Traditional definition does not exclude from the analysis all the organizations, which cannot be concidered as a State, but have advantage in the use of violence over specific territory. This situation creates difficulties in analizing The State, as far as it blurs the subject of study. The author proposes to develop the definition of the State by adding new marks: legitimacy and sovereignty. New functional definition helps to exclude those organizations that are not states from the analysis.

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Social justice and inequalities in views of Russians

Social justice and inequalities in views of Russians

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

Based on the data of national representative surveys, article presents Russians' views on social justice and inequalities. It is shown that concept of justice remains very important for the Russian socio-cultural model, and its implementation in practice is related to equality of opportunities for all and differentiation in income based on legitimate basis in the eyes of the population: efficiency of work and level of education. However, current situation in Russia does not meet public perceptions of social justice. Moreover, Russians do not see any possibilities of changing this situation; they do not see working channels of social mobility, and that may lead to a revision of their ideas about the special role of the state.

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Spots growth and growth drivers: the question of the contents concepts

Spots growth and growth drivers: the question of the contents concepts

Journal of Institutional studies, , Vol. 7 (no. 2),

In the context of discussions about the need to revitalize economic growth are common terms such as "points of growth" and "growth drivers". On the one hand, these terms represent some stable figures of speech, intended to identify the sources of economic development. On the other hand, these, at first glance, similar concepts are covered different approaches to changing economic realities, and the uncritical use of these terms is able to distort our understanding of these realities. This is largely due to the fact that the above concepts reflect different aspects of the potential for economic development. This paper analyzes the economic substance of these categories, as well as the disclosure of their importance in the modern theory and practice. The urgency of finding ways and factors contributing to the acceleration of growth and the formation of a new quality of economic dynamics are currently increasing in the context of economic turbulence, the instability of the national and world markets.
 
Search the main drivers of future growth and development is carried out in the framework of investment and innovative theories, considering the long-term patterns of economic dynamics based on the Kondratieff cycles, evolving technological structures. Investment and innovation, creating a demand for a certain market, then multiplicative translate it into other areas. Economic realities often do not correspond to this scenario, and local growth does not acquire quality system does not become a "locomotive" of the translational motion of the economy. Under the conditions of underdevelopment and the integrity of relations in the economic system, it requires drivers under which the authors understand the specific mechanisms of process management to create complex multi-level connections in the system.
 
The paper shows the features of the development of Russia through the prism of points and drivers of growth. These drivers are primarily the different institutions, but by themselves do not ensure the development of institutions, but only partially formed its conditions. The driver is the result of an optimal ratio for the country the basic conditions meet the growing demand from domestic reserves. As examples of the growth drivers of the Russian economy are considered: the transport and logistics infrastructure, small and medium businesses, cluster structures, the agricultural sector.

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