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"Capital" by K. Marx vs. "The Development of Capitalism in Russia" by V. I. Lenin: Similarities and Differences

"Capital" by K. Marx vs. "The Development of Capitalism in Russia" by V. I. Lenin: Similarities and Differences

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The article is devoted to studying the works of Karl Marx in Imperial Russia. Examines the background and reasons for the rapid spread of Marxism in the country, the second echelon of capitalism. The publication of the works of Marx extended for 100 years, and understanding began only at the end of the period of socialism. The insensitive perception of Marx's economic heritage, the absolutization of separate published works at different periods of development, their analysis in isolation from other works of the founder of Marxism led to a certain simplification and vulgarization of his views in the social-democratic literature of the late XIX-early XX century. The work of the Russian Marxists was no exception. An important feature of Russian economic thought was that it perceived the advanced achievements of its Western counterparts in conditions of catching up development. Hence the desire not only (and often not so much) to set out the main questions of the theory, how much to try to apply them to Russian reality. Particular attention is paid in the article to the analysis of V.I. Lenin's works, his role as a popularizer and vulgarizer of Marx is shown, factors that contribute to the Russification and orientation of Marxism are investigated. The spread of Marxism in the Russian Empire "breadth" occurred to a much greater extent than is allowed domestic economic, social and cultural conditions. But the same Russian reality has become obstacle to the spread of Marxism in Russia, "depth", for its development in an integrated and adequate primary source form. In conclusion, analyzes the causes of increasing interest to the academic Marxism, both in our country and abroad.

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The Russian Economy: New Normal, Past Imbalances, Future Globalization

The Russian Economy: New Normal, Past Imbalances, Future Globalization

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The new normal is a conceptual situation where economic and political agents are economically convinced and politically motivated to adapt to temporary austerity in economic growth and political participation. The concept entails a remarkable and rare mix of economics and politics. The alternative is to actively plan towards changing the underlying benchmark. Focusing on Russia, the paper draws on re sults from two studies that reflect on underlying weak links in the benchmark economy. One study examines the tendency and causes for slow growth and sticky distribution in Russia (when compared to other leading countries), making use of social accounting matrix multipliers. The tendencies are partly due to structural imbalances inherited from the past economy with its state-led and parallel shadow counterparts. The other study looks forward into the future and examines Russian prospects for a leading role and influence potential in the global economy. The study makes use of a dominance index composed of the relative sizes of transforming agents (i.e. population) and transformed value (i.e. GDP). Results for Russia suggest that in a few decades global marginalization is imminent, unless agents and production change course and actively link and substantially integrate with other world blocs.

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The Institutional Trust as an Economic Resource: Incentives and Obstacles of Efficiency

The Institutional Trust as an Economic Resource: Incentives and Obstacles of Efficiency

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The study examines the transformation of the trust sphere in modern society. It is argued that in a long-term slowdown in global economic growth the more important is a non-economic progress measurement. The factors that were previously considered as non-economic and are resumed in concepts of social and human capital have a more intense impact on the economic development. In modern societies, an increasingly important factor of development is such a component of social capital as a generalized or institutional trust that reduces various transaction costs in social communications and empowers citizens opportunities associated with the use of social capital. Trust mechanisms are becoming increasingly impersonal and universal. However, the strategy of wide confidence is more unstable and fragile than a priori distrust for strangers legitimate for traditional culture. The early liberal market theory suggested that economically rational selfish individuals will voluntarily come to the need for self-restraint and confidence as a precondition of the successful building of civic associations and collective interaction strategies. At the same time the sizes of the state and its institutions were interpreted as a materialized distrust in society, reducing the overall efficiency of social transactions and additional costs. However, in a global reality of capitalism, that is characterized by growing rental arrangements, the role of the state as the institutional guarantor of generalized trust and the results of social interactions becomes increasingly important. Particularly significant is the function of the state as a value regulator within the context of the Russian peripheral market and the antimodern consensus. As a result, the hypotheses of the expansion of institutional trust, relevant in conditions of democracy and market economies, protecting the citizens in their expectations of social communications ends by diverse mechanisms of the welfare state, are of reduced axiological value in terms of peripheral capitalism with its’ rent-caste state, while the dominant pre-modern and antimodern social groups use limited "exclusive" trust strategy.

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Institutional Conditions of the Russian Economy in 1999–2016 Years

Institutional Conditions of the Russian Economy in 1999–2016 Years

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The article deals with the condition of the Russian state and society in Putin's period. For the analysis, various international ratings and alternative assessments are used by the author. As an indicator of the quality of the state and publicity, their attitude toward objective information on the economic situation is suggested. According to the Russian tradition, the stateis treated as an important instrument of economic development. During the analyzed period, the role of the state has significantly increased, as a reaction to the negative consequences of its weakening in the 1990s. The nature and development of the Russian state was greatly influenced by the views and actions of V.V. Putin. The impact of Putin's life experience on his economic perspectives is analyzed. Putin’sprogram article written on the eve of the presidential elections of 2000 is considered. The author shows that the main directions of economic policy in Russia were outlined in the subsequent period. Putin's regime is characterized as a soft authoritarianism. The differences betweenthe indicators of the economic development of the Russian Federation and those of the successful countries adopted soft authoritarianism are explained. Political stability is noted among the positive consequences of soft authoritarianism in the economic field. Among the negative consequences, the lack of strategic thinking, the clan influences and the associated unsuccessful personnel policy, huge amounts of corruption are highlited. Dmitry Medvedev’s different perspectives on the economy and society are identified, as a reaction to the economic failures that emerged during the 2008 crisis. A failure in their implementation is stated. The exhaustion of the positive influence of the Russian state on the economy is noted. The legislative and judicial power of The Russian Federation are analyzed:in an authoritarian regime, they ceased to be independent and positive. The state of public institutions is considered. Their degradation is stated. It is concluded that at present Russia lives in an creativeless institutional wilderness. Unsatisfactory state of the institutions is due to the consequences of the late Soviet legacy, the mistakes of the 1990s and the demographic crisis of the XX century, the degradation of education, culture and science.

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The Interaction of the Institutions of Money and Liberum Veto in Grand Principality of Litva, or about the Country without Legal Tender

The Interaction of the Institutions of Money and Liberum Veto in Grand Principality of Litva, or about the Country without Legal Tender

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The article presents an analysis of the interaction of social institutions such money and representative democracy in the Grand Principality of Litva. The article has a twofold goal: firstly, to contribute to the theoretical understanding of the spontaneous orders’ interaction, and, secondly, to contribute the scientific discussion about the complexity and diversity of monetary practices, by the historical experience of Grand Principality of Litva. Throughout its history, the country has avoided government monopolization of the money issue. It was reflected in the absence of a prohibition for the usage of foreign coins as a mean of payment. In addition, at the stage of formation of the state different regions had their own monetary systems which corresponded to the habits of the local population and to best meet the organization of trade with neighbors. The monetary system without prohibition on any currency in circulation has demonstrated flexibility, sustainability and efficiency over the centuries. Decision-making process on economic and political issues was carried out under limitation of the prince power by Parliament. Parliamentary democracy with a tradition of consensus decision-making for a long time was supported the right of liberum veto. It made the possible to create an effective legal system. Interaction of spontaneous orders (democracy with a tradition of an unanimity rule for decision-making, law and money) promoted to defense of these social institutions from the deterioration by government. The article broadens the Gresham's law: in the conditions of the compulsory denomination of some coins and the absence of a ban on the use of a quality coin, the good money drives out the bad ones.

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Russian Economic Journal Consensus Ranking: Ideology and Experience of Making Up

Russian Economic Journal Consensus Ranking: Ideology and Experience of Making Up

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The article reveals the ideology and algorithm of building a Russian economic journal consensus ranking, which combines the Muraviev’s, Sterligov’s, Balatsky-Ekimova’s and Rubinstein’s rankings of Russian economic journal. Currently they are the most popular private rankings. They use both an expert and bibliometric data and the hybrid procedures for ranking journals. The combination of these ranking products is analogous to the law of large numbers and gives a more balanced and objective assessment of domestic economic journals. An overview of the attempts to construct a similar aggregate journal ranking by Western experts is given in this article. That proves the validity of such author's initiative in relation to Russia. Procedures for translating qualitative assessments of journals into digital equivalent and back were used in the construction of the consensual ranking. The ranking allowed to select the best Russian economic journals and to form the so-called Diamond List, which includes 13 of the best periodicals in the economy. Analysis of the consensus ranking revealed a number of features. So, it shown that consensus is observed only for a strictly limited number of journals – 13–15 and then the consistency of expert assessments starts to diverge. Also weak elements were identified in the composition of the Diamond List. The practical significance of the rating and the possibility of its further use were also discussed in this article.

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Dynamics of Institutional Forms on the Science Frontier

Dynamics of Institutional Forms on the Science Frontier

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The paper proves an urgency of information research of the science and technologies sphere. It represents the results, which allow to describe the dynamics of institutional forms on the science frontier. A review of examples from the EU and the USA shows that a significant factor of these changes is an aspiration of innovation system administrators to provide a legitimization for public expenditures on RD. The concept of evolutionary (helical) development of institutional forms (HIDS – Helical Institutional Development Scheme) helps to prove that there is a correlation between dynamics of organizational and semantic forms, when the latter are introduced into the research domain. The assumption of discrete character of goods is a characteristic of the author's model which is later extended on mental forms and institutes. The given property forms phenomena of discreteness of institutional space and, consequentially, the presence of barriers effects in this space. The regulator aims to overcome such barriers because certain types of organizational structures in sciences can successfully operate only at certain intuitional levels. HIDS is offered as a means for this purpose. Theoretical descriptions of strategic regulation methods: (i) “upstream” and (ii) "downstream", are supplemented by a metaphor of "swing". Thus one can interpret those methods within the limits of the spiral development movement as (a) clockwise: from culture (means) of thinking – to routines; and (b) counter-clockwise: from institutes – to routines and organizational culture (means) of thinking. The author stresses that the order of organizational forms is structured by the mission. In situations of uncertainty the most natural decision of an administrator is to offer the organisation a quasiverbalised institutional form. The mission then may be elaborated in the process of activity of the learning organisation (e.g., a new science imperative), along with probably new way of thinking, and if necessary – new organizational forms. A metaphor of an intelligent organism allows formulating a thesis that a science information research institute cannot be just a “memory carrier” of complex systems nowadays. There is urgency not only for a long-term memory, but also for means and mechanisms of analyses of constantly changing communications and tendencies in science and technology.

Views: 355

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Formation of Productive Innovative Entrepreneurship in Conditions of Limited Access Order on the Example of Russian «Resource-Type» Regions

Formation of Productive Innovative Entrepreneurship in Conditions of Limited Access Order on the Example of Russian «Resource-Type» Regions

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The paper analyzes the institutional characteristics of the productive entrepreneur, aimed at creating innovations in «resource-type» regions of Russia. The modern Russian economy has features of dual enclave economy with an isolated export-oriented commodity sector. Based on the previous hypotheses on the relationship between institutional systems and types of entrepreneurship, a research is carried out on presence of «non-productive entrepreneurship» determined by the prevailing model of the institutional environment of limited access order, what is typical for the dual enclave economy of Russian «resource-type» regions. On the basis of sociological studies conducted in resource regions of the Krasnoyarsk krai and the Kemerovo oblast, it is concluded that productive entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of such elements of the limited access economy as weak protection of property rights, a state manipulated, formed on the basis of the ruling coalitions consisting of the bureaucratic structure and large business, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from an innovative system of «technological push» (fundamental knowledge demanded by the state) to an innovative system of «market pull» (innovation demanded by business) is impossible in a way traditional for highly developed economies of the Western type through, what is true both for the Russian economy as a whole and for its resource regions, in particular. In order to form a new type of social contract between government, society and business with an institutional environment of order more «open» for an access to political and economic trades, it is more reasonable to transit to the mobilization model of the «triple helix» building the relevant relations within the development institutes of the Russian regions (strategic partnership of science and education, business and government, and the population).

Views: 351

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The Socio-Economic Order and Economists

The Socio-Economic Order and Economists

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 10 (no. 1),

The author of the review analyses the new book of Vladimir Yefimov «Economic science in question: other methodology, history and research practice» (2016), in which the profession of economists is considered from the point of view, from one side of its immersion in a particular socio-economic order, and, on the other – its influence on the latter. This is done by analysing profession of university and academic economists as an institution, the rules of functioning of which throughout the history of this profession was determined largely from outside the community of economists. The birth of the profession of economists in the mid-nineteenth century was associated with the emergence of social question, caused by the appearance of industrial capitalism, and three currents of economic thought (classical political economy and later neo-classical economics, Marxist political economy and the original institutionalism offered three different explanations and, therefore, three different solutions to this question. The book outlines the twists and turns of the development of the first and third of these currents, and explains the disappearance, starting from 1950-ies, of the original institutionalism, while the economics in the West and Marxism in the Soviet Union began to serve the interests of the ruling elites and acted as the ideology, not as the science. Scientific economic discipline was presented then only by the original institutionalism, drawing the insights from the historical-ethical school headed by G. Smaller, the philosophy of pragmatism by C. S. Pierce and the concept of person by John. Dewey, was directly involved in the study of economic reality (economic institutions, rules, habits, beliefs and values that guide the behaviour of economic actors) with the help of qualitative research methods (interviews, participant observation, action research). This methodology assumes that actors are competent in specific problematic situations, which means that only they, in cooperation with experts, (not the experts alone, as is the case in elitist democracies) may be in a process of discussion (deliberation) to come to the solution of these problems. Hence V. Yefimov makes an attempt, on the one hand, to restore the original research practice of institutionalism in the form of a historical-discursive and constructivist institutionalism (which will serve as a framework social theory), and, on the other hand, to propose a project of socio-economic order based on deliberative democracy.

Views: 372

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