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Modeling the Impact of Labor Law on the Assessment of Human Resources

Modeling the Impact of Labor Law on the Assessment of Human Resources

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

This study is devoted to the analysis of the existence and nature of the relationship between labor law and the organization of the labor market. The study of the relationship between the system of law and the economic life of society has attracted the attention of specialists for more than a hundred years. To the 50-th years of XX century in the framework of neoinstitutionalism formed a discipline “Economic analysis of law” (Law and Economics, Economic Analysis of Law), whose main task is to study the interaction of law and economic society. One of its directions is the positive economic analysis of the right (positive law and economics) focused on an assessment or forecasting of influence of legal norms on behavior of individuals. This study is related to it in the context of regulation of labor relations. Its results can be used in the analysis of costs associated with the formation of resources and benefits in the planning of economic activities. Rational investment policy in relation to resources largely ensures the long-term (strategic) success of the organization. In particular, interaction with the institutional environment plays an important role in the implementation of the resource strategy. Taking into account the nature of the impact of this environment on economic activity allows you to optimize transaction and transformation costs. Part of the institutional environment is determined by the system of law and, in particular, labor law, regulating the activities of organizations related to the formation and management of human resources. The object of this study is the labor market of professional football players. It possesses a number of unique traits. In particular, inefficient allocation of human resources ensures high profitability of economic activities of its participants. The results of modeling the pricing of transfers in this study show in favor of a significant statistical relationship between the cost of transfer and some indicators of the legal field of the labor market.

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Institutionalized Arenas of Marriage Games

Institutionalized Arenas of Marriage Games

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The article is devoted to the actualization of research on the family functions and forms in the context of the strategic interaction analysis in the marriage market under the conditions of the family institution transformation. Recent studies in this area show the transformation of the family internal organization and structure, the spread of marriage-like unions and so on. In this regard, it is necessary to actualize the basic family functions as a household in relation to: the multidirectional influence on the economic behavior of marital-specific capital; fulfilling the function of reducing uncertainty regarding the future family structure and organization through temporary partnership agreements; consideration of the spouses rational choice within the identification space framework of family relations they are included. A common formalized model of building a family is the stable marriage problem, but in the context of the noted family institution transformation, as well as the latest developments in the field of institutional grammar and design of mechanisms, it also should be rethought. This task has strict assumptions and describes the interaction in a single identification field and the algorithm acting on it. There is a possibility of to find a partner on various interaction «fields» were built on the basis of various institutional mechanisms, which is becoming more relevant nowadays because of decreasing transaction cost for «inclusion» and monitoring of alternatives. Accepting this assumption, a single agent in the marriage market may be included in several stable matches that correspond to different interaction «fields». Thus, the individual has a choice – which of the available matches to participate in (which field to play). In other words, the agent chooses a marriage partner while chooses an interaction field.

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Corruption in the Mirror of Russian Public Opinion: Problems, Contradictions, Paradoxes

Corruption in the Mirror of Russian Public Opinion: Problems, Contradictions, Paradoxes

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

When summarizing the results of sociological surveys on corruption, conducted in the 2000– 2010s of the Institute of Sociology, VCIOM and FOM, focuses on the internal contradictions of the «anti-corruption mentality» of Russia. Their first one is the contradiction between the recognition by Russians of corruption as a problem requiring a priority solution, and at the same time a relatively low rating of corruption among socio-economic problems that disturb citizens (only about the 5th most important problem). Further, it points out the contradictions between the data from different databases of sociological polls on the dynamics of corruption in Russia, some of which can be interpreted as evidence of stability or growth of corruption (polls by the Institute of Sociology and FOM), while others show more likely a decrease in corruption (polls VCIOM). The contradiction between the expected growth of personal corruption experience of the Russians with the transition to older age groups and the actual partial annulment of this experience has been found. Attention is also drawn to the contradiction between the discourse of the political opposition on the «corrupt regime» and the actual perceptions of the Russians that the upper «floors» of state power are more corrupt, but the lower ones. In explaining the detected contradictions, the main attention is paid to cognitive distortions associated with the limited rationality of social consciousness, in particular, to the effects of halo, framing and embellishment of the past. The study of the «anti-capitalist mentality» allows you to see the «pitfalls» that prevent the too banal interpretation of mass anti-corruption sentiments as a positive factor in the expected changes.

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Institutional Organization of Resource-Type Regions in Russia: General Description and Structural Shift in the Economy

Institutional Organization of Resource-Type Regions in Russia: General Description and Structural Shift in the Economy

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The paper describes the institutional organization of the resource type regions. The advantages of the political and economic approach based on structural alternatives of development identification are justified. The proposed approach allows us to characterize the relationship between the resource-sectoral structure of the economy, the institutional organization of markets and the constitutional structure of the economy and society. The choice between those alternatives is decided by dominant political and economic actors’ interactions, motivations and limitations of the actors are regarded in the context of path dependence and lock-in effects. The path dependency effect manifested itself in the presence of special forms of relationship between the specific resource-sectoral structure of the economy and the political and economic organization of society, based on the complimenting of horizontal value chains with vertical mechanisms for value redistribution. During the implementation of radical reforms in the 1990–2000s, the lock-in effect was also manifested. The existing stable system of interactions between the resource-technological and political-economic structure of the Russian society determined the existence of rigid restrictions on the implementation of institutional projects for its modernization. The liberal institutional project that did not take into account these objective constraints encountered active opposition from the dominant political and economic actors, as a result of which the institutional system returned in a modified form to a historically predetermined development path. Different configurations of those actors’ interactions can both strengthen and weaken resource dependence. The results of the resource type regions development in 2005–2015 are regarded bearing in mind the structural shift effects. The authors show that emerging due to structural shift effects cannot be explained without involving institutional factors that determine the degree to which the regional economy operated as an integral unit or as a set of enclaves in its social and economic development.

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Institute of Professional Dynasties in the Context of Crony Capitalism

Institute of Professional Dynasties in the Context of Crony Capitalism

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

Dynasties matter as a factor affecting social and economic development in various social orders. In the framework of this article, professional dynasties are considered as an institution that structures interactions associated with professional activities, the reproduction of human and social capital based on kinship, and group identity. The constructive or destructive influence of dynasties on social-economic development depends on the type of capitalism and its institutional structure. Social orders in this paper are considered through the prism of the natural state evolution concept. Among the forms of capitalism related to a natural state are considered: political, public, crony capitalism, and the economic order of modern mercantilism. Crony capitalism as a form of social order has developed due to the specific features of the institutional environment – a low intergroup trust level and trust in social institutions. Crony capitalism describes an economic system in which the government controls the economy with deformed market institutions, through support to different types of monopoly to provide the dominant groups with the institutional rent. In those conditions, the professional dynasties as a social institution implies activities of special interest groups which exist due to strong family ties and benefit from the institutional rent. The groups that make up professional dynasties, explicitly or implicitly, seek to create and maintain local professional and administrative monopolies. Constructive approach, in turn, treats professional dynasties as the channels to transfer and preserve the human capital in specific areas, related to culture and generation of the new knowledge, which do not imply significant institutional rent. Under Russian conditions, the problem of the institution dynasties acquires significance as a reflection of institutional inertia in the crony capitalism evolution, which ensures the stability and continuity between the elites.

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US-China Economic Conflict Assessment in the Major Paradigms of the Theory of International Relations

US-China Economic Conflict Assessment in the Major Paradigms of the Theory of International Relations

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The study of international relations in general and of international economic relations in particular, provides opportunities for using the methodology of new institutional economics (or its close analogs in other social sciences) to analyze political and economic developments on the global arena. Modern paradigms of international relations represent different cases of institutional analysis applied to the same subject but based on different assumptions, different ethical / philosophical approaches, and relying upon different basic facts or axioms. This paper gives an overview of the key paradigms of the international relations (Realism / Neorealism, Liberalism / Neoliberalism, Marxism / Neomarxism and Constructivism) from the institutional perspective, and examines the current economic conflict between the US and People’s Republic of China from the perspective of each paradigm. From the institutional / new institutional methodological perspective, it is interesting to examine how each paradigm of the theory of international relations views international actors and institutions through which they interact. The knowledge about modern paradigms of international relations is necessary for correct interpretation of the academic discourse on the matter, as well as of the policy advice offered by the academic and expert community to policymakers.

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Private Tutoring in Russia: Description of the Phenomenon Based on Online Platforms

Private Tutoring in Russia: Description of the Phenomenon Based on Online Platforms

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

Private tutoring is widely spread in Russian Federation. According to different estimations, the market of private tutoring is more than 30 billion rubles. Being self-employed (from the viewpoint of law-makers), private tutors perform their activity in the informal sector of the economy and are “invisible” to official statistics as they do not pay taxes and have no formal status. Despite a number of legislative initiatives, which were established to bring self-employed out of shadows, most of the private tutors still operate without formalization and are see all legislative initiatives as another enforcement to pay “more taxes”. However, even performing an activity of informal nature, private tutors have a number of formal parameters that can be collected and analysed. This paper presents the results of the empirical study of private tutors in Moscow and its district. Parsing (automated data collection of Internet data with free access) of 6 most popular websites that provide information about private tutors in Moscow and its region was held – about 180 000 profiles with different parameters (gender, experience, price, review, status) of private tutors were downloaded. Results are presented in the form of descriptive statistics and are accompanied by analytical comments that are to mark key trends and positions in private tutoring. Moreover, segmentation of private tutoring in Moscow and its district on the basis of data collected, description of main behavioral strategies are done and the portrait of “typical” private tutor, who promotes his or her services via online-platforms is presented.

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Empirical Analysis of Opportunism Based on a Survey of University Students

Empirical Analysis of Opportunism Based on a Survey of University Students

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The paper is devoted to the New Institutional analysis of factors of opportunism in the student environment, in other words, cheating among students. The study is conducted on the basis of a database collected by the authors, consisting of 231 students of NRU HSE in St. Petersburg from December 2018 to March 2019. On the basis of already published works in the field of opportunistic behavior – in general and among students – the authors tested a number of hypotheses. Econometric modeling allowed establishing the influence on students' propensity for opportunism of such factors as motivation, propensity for group work and procrastination, expectations regarding others, financial independence and a certain level of income. Thus, students who are motivated primarily to obtain knowledge (mastery) show a lesser inclination towards opportunism compared with students whose main motive is the degree (performance). The probability of behaving opportunistically is higher among students who are prone to group work and procrastination, rather than those who are inclined to work alone and solve various tasks consistently as they arrive. If a student believes that more than 70% of his classmates violate the charter of the university, the probability that the student himself will be an opportunist will be higher compared to students who think that less than a third of classmates are dishonest. In addition, students who are partially dependent on their parents are less prone to opportunism than students who do not depend on their parents at all. Finally, students who earn income in the range of twenty to thirty thousand rubles are less prone to opportunism, other things being equal, than students who have less than 10 thousand rubles a month at their disposal. Thus, on the basis of the analysis performed, it can be assumed under what conditions the student environment will be characterized by a higher propensity for opportunism and, consequently, a lower rate of accumulation of human capital.

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Institutional Change in Higher Education and Precariat

Institutional Change in Higher Education and Precariat

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

Technological change is increasing the importance of knowledge-based industries and human capital as factors of economic growth, which also depend on the institutional environment. Higher education institution is essential for three reasons. Firstly, it generates new technologies and innovations. Secondly, it ensures the creation of human capital and prepares highly qualified personnel for the national economy. Thirdly, the higher education system forms elites that will govern the country's economic and political life. The phenomenon of “working poverty” appeared as a result of a systemic crisis in the domestic economy, when the number of citizens living below the subsistence level increases despite the “digitalization” and “innovativeness” of the economy. Various forms of precarious work are becoming more common. The problem of employment of students and graduates is a particular one; it impedes the modernization of the Russian economy, which leads to the degradation of the creative potential of young specialists. Individual choices and global trends determine the transformation of students into precarious, which manifests itself in a mismatch between the structure of student preparation and the labor market. Inconsistency of demand in the local labor market leads to the migration of graduates of certain specialties to other regions of the country in search of work, or this leads to a drop in qualifications and inclusion in the precariat. The creation of an effective information system for the interaction of the regional labor market and the educational services market is one way to overcome the imbalances that have arisen.

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