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Monetary Policy and Inequality

Monetary Policy and Inequality

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article provides a literature review of studies of the impact of monetary policy on income and wealth inequality. Based on the analysis and systematization of the articles mainly written over the past 25–30 years as well as articles written by central bank authorities, the main approaches to assessing the extent to which the Fed's actions are responsible for the growth of wealth inequality in the United States, which began in the 1970s, are identified. It was revealed that the relative unanimity of economists on this issue was replaced by significant pluralism of opinions after the crisis of 2007–2009. Among other reasons this was caused by the activity of central banks and their use of non-conventional approaches in conducting the monetary policy. In addition, the channels through which the actions of central banks affect the distribution of wealth in the economy are identified. In total, five such channels were singled out. Thus, changes in the monetary policy affect the debt market and the structure of assets and liabilities of households, while households with fixed incomes and with a high propensity to use cash are more likely to suffer losses during the expansionary monetary policy. And the fifth channel, which is less popular among the economists, the "Cantillon effect", leads to an increase in the wealth of the first recipients of the issued money at the expense of those who are farthest from the center of emission. The article provides empirical evidence of why this effect is significant for the American economy, and theoretical arguments indicating that taking the Cantillon effect into account can add certainty to studies of both monetary policy costs and institutional changes caused by rising inequality.

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The Limits of Capitalism: the Rent-Seeking Society as a Global Alternative

The Limits of Capitalism: the Rent-Seeking Society as a Global Alternative

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The natural limits of capitalism are expressed not only in the global suspension of economic growth, which has been considered endless. It is also a crisis of its non-economic legitimization, of those political forms that have made possible smoothing of inequality generated by capitalism. The nation-state, the model of social state and representative democracy were the mechanisms of access for the most citizens to the fruits of the economic growth generated by capitalism. However, the growth limits of available public resources did not significantly change the strategies of political and economic elites. Attempts to redistribute the non-growing public pie were expressed in neoliberal rhetoric; devaluation of the political nation model as co-citizenship; reduction of forms of social policy; the crisis of democracy, expressed in a return to its narrow interpretation as Schumpeterian competition of the elites. The tendencies related to the fact that the elites would like to keep receiving an additional piece of the public pie at the expense of the majority, reinforce inequality and deprive capitalism of convincing value-institutional regulation that have earlier ensured its stable existence. There is a growing demand in society for return to a more egalitarian model of the distribution of public resources. Its options are less and less associated with capitalism as a society dominated by market metaphor that ideologically represents modernity, but for many reasons has ceased to provide acceptable prospects for the majority. It seems that rental society is becoming an alternative to capitalism without economic growth and with a shrinking labor market. In the rental society, the key mechanisms of stratification and access to resources are again moving from the market to the nation-state, non-market types of public exchanges are strengthening, and social policy is striving for a model of basic unconditional income. The room for social construction is reduced to local utopias and virtues of various minorities, while populism becomes the dominant form of political discourse, which instead of decaying economic classes turns to the majority and is compatible with both the right and the left political value systems.

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Technological Systems and Economy: a Heterodox Approach and Institutional Framework

Technological Systems and Economy: a Heterodox Approach and Institutional Framework

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

Technologies determine the level of innovative development and economic growth. The article studies a methodological platform for a new unit of analysis in economic science such technological system. This phenomenon involves the research program, the study of the specifics and features this mesolevel pattern. The methodological basis of the research includes Neoclassical and Neoinstitutional Economic theories, Strategic Management and Complexity Economic. The research program we apply a Heterodox approach as a set of the Contract theory, Evolutionary theory, Complexity Economic and Platform ecosystems. The authors define a technological system as an economic meso-level pattern that coordinate actions and knowledge about system and component technologies and functioning through the quasi-self-enforcing contracts based on standards and independent of property rights. Any meso-level pattern that has technological and institutional identity is a technological system. The types of technological systems in the economy are highlighted on the basis of the consolidated classification “blurring of the bundle of property rights to technology – the degree of technology decentralization”. The results create the basis for further research of identifying boundaries and analyzing the competitiveness of technological systems, as well as assessing public administration strategies in this area.

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Joseph Schumpeter’s Credit View of Money: a Contribution to a “Monetary Analysis” of Capitalism

Joseph Schumpeter’s Credit View of Money: a Contribution to a “Monetary Analysis” of Capitalism

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

This paper highlights Joseph Schumpeter’s monetary thought, which appears to be neglected, compared to his theory of innovation and entrepreneurship. In particular, the author addresses his completely unknown writing “Das Wesen des Geldes” focused on the topic of money. This book uncovers the “essence” and the logic of money and credit that stem from Schumpeter’s experience as the finance minister and the president of a private bank. Relying on this experience, Schumpeter rediscovers and deepens the credit theory of money, which interprets the money as an institution and a social accounting system, with the banking system seen as the central agency of capitalism. “Das Wesen des Geldes” is particularly interesting, since it is the outcome of Schumpeter’s elaborations within the framework of the German Historical (Ethical) School headed by Gustav Schmoller. This was followed by his moving to the United States, and his views reversed to support the neoclassical framework in line with Marshall – Taussig canon. The fact that “Das Wesen des Geldes” was not published posthumously until 40 years after it was written, shows the coercive power of the rules within the communities of academic economists.

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Institutional Factors Influencing Political Trust in Modern Russia

Institutional Factors Influencing Political Trust in Modern Russia

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The aim of this study is to analyze and assess the impact of institutional factors on political trust in various levels of government (federal, regional and local) in modern Russia. Data and methods. The study is based on microdata from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) “Life in Transition Survey” (LiTS). We examined such institutional factors of political trust as perceived government performance and level of corruption, as well as the level of interpersonal trust. The subjective decile of household wealth was an additional explanatory variable in our analysis. We estimated the model parameters using linear regressions with instrumental variables. Results and their application. First, we found that in 2016 the perceived effectiveness of the federal government was the main determinant of Russian trust in the president. At the same time, the perceived level of local corruption was a major factor of Russian citizens’ (mis)trust in local authorities. Second, we found that poor households turned out to be the most loyal groups of the population towards the Russian president, and we explained this phenomenon by the active redistributive policy of the federal authorities. Third, we revealed a significant positive relationship between political and interpersonal trust at the micro level. In conclusion, we made recommendations on the effective management of political trust in modern Russia.

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The ”Tripled Failure” of Institutional Design of Higher Education Reform in Russia

The ”Tripled Failure” of Institutional Design of Higher Education Reform in Russia

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

Reasons and consequences of "tripled failure" in the sphere of the Russian higher education reforming are revealed in the article. These multiplying negative effects are results of designers and ordering group activity in the frame of exclusive «club». Narrow «liberal» expert community, including a group of elite universities and research centers, as a designer is in this exclusive «club». Russian state is the group that orders projects of reforming and represented with two interconnected subjects, i.e. ruling group and politicized administrators of "scientific and educational departments". Primary failure is highlighted in the choice of institutional projects those did not lead to increasing the quality of higher education during its implementation in the EU countries and the USA. The problems were not identified that linked to the fact that implemented tools of new public management were basically unable to assess the social effectiveness of higher education. This is due to the specifics of goods produced in this system. These goods are credible and they create a wide range of positive externalities. Secondary failure lies in the declarative nature of priority to increase social efficiency of higher education in Russia. This fact means that implementation of reform projects does not lead to the achievement of the declared outcomes linked with improving the quality of higher education, meeting the needs of the national economy in human capital, and opportunities for development of society. In practice, implemented formal institutions dramatically reinforce the differentiation of social and economic development of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. This is not an unintended consequence of the reformers actions, but the result of their real orientation towards the goals of private efficiency. Tertiary failure is due to the fact that designers and ordering group launched the process of “self-destruction” of higher education and science system in the long-term period pursuing their short-term private interests. The “enclave of wealth” that has been formed in this sphere absorbs the country's resources undermining the capabilities of its own development and even survival in the long-term period.

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Employment Insecurity and Behavioral Preferences of University Graduates

Employment Insecurity and Behavioral Preferences of University Graduates

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

This paper deals with the employment insecurity in the context of labor market dysfunction and changing institutional structure of the economy. We consider the actorsʼ behavior in the labor market as affected by the institutional factors. Employment insecurity and associated precarity processes are essenstial for young people entering the labor market. Qualitative methodology allowed us to identify the behavioral preferences of the informants through the in-depth interviews. We have conducted and analyzed 17 in-depth interviews with the university graduates. The research findings showed that the graduates are generally aware of the problems associated with unstable employment in the Russian labor market. They are relatively loyal to informal employment during university studies and for the initial few years after graduation. We focus on the graduates’ perception of the precarization processes in the context of the labor marketʼs structural opportunities. The gap between educational and economic policies and the emergence of institutions that create sustainable rules for the professional and personal development of the employees is an important cause of youth unemployment. The behavioral strategies of university graduates are associated with three main groups of factors: the existing institutional constraints on the labor market, adaptation to the demand structure in the region (city) in its competence area, and the level of competence of the graduate and his/her self-assessment of these competencies and their relevance to employersʼ modern requirements. The challenges of precarious employment are addressed by graduates in the context of competition and the need to improve their skills.

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Institutional Aspects of Risk Strategic Management in Azerbaijan Hospitality Sector

Institutional Aspects of Risk Strategic Management in Azerbaijan Hospitality Sector

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

Nowadays, in the 21st century that is distinguished by the high penetration of information and communication technologies, interconnectedness and globalization, the effectiveness of institutions is increasingly manifesting the pressing need to clearly define and assess the prospects and directions of business development, taking into account the likelihood and the occurrence of the objective and subjective risks. This is happening mostly due to the growing volatility of the macroeconomic environment, increased competition, and the rapid globalization of various business processes and solutions. Taking this into account, one can see that the risk of the management process of the hospitality industry represents a complex multi-level procedure. The starting point of the whole risk management system is their forecasting which becomes the most effective way to prepare management decisions in hotel enterprises for the future. This paper focuses on the institutional aspects of risk strategic management in Azerbaijan hospitality sector related to legal, organizational, and cultural characteristics of development. The aim of this study is to identify the major institutional aspects of risk factors of the external environment as well as to realistically assess the changes in the impact of these factors on the activities of hotel enterprises and the hospitality sector of Azerbaijan for the nearest future based on the expert risk forecasting method. Moreover, the paper aims at updating the strategy of hotel development taking into account the changes in the external environment and to link these risks to the business processes taking place in hotel enterprises and in the hospitality sector. We analyze and describe the most important factors and sources of threats to hotel enterprises of Azerbaijan, such as the probability of new competitors, increasing competitive pressure, imperfect business environment in the country, increase in airline tariffs, changing customer needs and tastes, and maintaining a visa regime with many countries. Our results propose some organizational and economic mechanisms for risk management in the hospitality sector.

Views: 365

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