Pushkinskaya st. 43. office 10
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
344082
e-mail: info@hjournal.ru 
tel. +7(863) 269-88-14

cubsEN (2)

Factors of Technological Modernization in Russia and Typical Mistakes of Institutional Reforms

Factors of Technological Modernization in Russia and Typical Mistakes of Institutional Reforms

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The paradox of innovative insensitivity (insensitivity) of the Russian manufacturing sector is considered in the article. It consists in the implementation by the authorities of various and large-scale initiatives to accelerate the technological modernization of the Russian economy with extremely low returns from them. To illustrate this paradox, we consider a retrospective of institutional reforms in science, higher education, and the manufacturing sector. For a deeper understanding of failures in the field of acceleration of technological progress, the reform theory and the general theory of social development are combined, which allows us to obtain an adequate analytical apparatus. A typology of mistakes made during the reform of the Russian economy modernization has been developed. This typology includes six types of mistakes: the direction of the reforms (wrong priorities of reform); the instruments of reform (inadequate methods of control); the scale of the reform (too large or too small a program of changes); speed of reform (excessively fast or extremely delayed reform); inconsistency of the reform (radical change of the reform vector); inconsistency of reforms (lack of consistency of reforms in complementary areas: technology, institutions, culture and welfare). All these types of mistakes are illustrated by two real examples, mainly from the field of science and higher education. The possibility of applying typology in the practice of designing and implementing reforms is considered.

Views: 464

Continue Reading

F. Von Hayek: Invention of the Enemy and Modern Neoliberalism

F. Von Hayek: Invention of the Enemy and Modern Neoliberalism

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The paper considers the evolution of the category “political” in the development of economic theory of the XVIII – XX centuries. It demonstrates the departure of economic science from ideological assessments characteristic for the antagonistic relations of early capitalism. In the 1940s – 1950s F. von Hayek reintroduces the concept of “enemy” into economic researches, which is met with strong rejection by the Western establishment, which is under the influence of Keynesianism. F. von Hayek is one of the founders of neoliberalism, within the framework of which an antagonistic confrontation between the “blind forces of the market” and the “dictatorship of a group of people” is being constructed. Thus, a dilemma is imposed, which does not provide an opportunity to understand the mechanisms of market design. Von Hayek is making great efforts to create a transatlantic network of neoliberal organizations based on the Mont Pelerin Society. Long work leads to the fact that in the 1970s. neoliberalism is becoming the ideology - hegemon. At present, the political category retains its significance in economic science. Ideological constructs such as human capital, private money, diffused knowledge, despite their utopianism, continue to transform reality

Views: 411

Continue Reading

Evolution of the Subject Area of Happiness and Subjective Well-Being Research in World and Russian Science

Evolution of the Subject Area of Happiness and Subjective Well-Being Research in World and Russian Science

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The article provides an analytical overview of the peculiarities of the international and Russian tradition of studying overlapping structures describing happiness, subjective well-being, quality of life and satisfaction. The semantic content of such constructions and the peculiarities of their use in empirical research are studied. The most common and studied determinants of subjective well-being are described. Existing Russian and international databases that can serve as sources of well-being analysis in the time and cross-country space are considered. A semantic analysis of the concept of "happiness" as the closest and most commonly used synonym for the term "subjective well-being" is conducted. The discussion questions of the relationship of theoretical constructs describing the concept of subjective well-being are discussed in detail. A characterisation of the extent to which the existing needs of an individual are met has been proposed as a basis for developing similar structures, where it is important to take into account the individual specificity and level character of the needs themselves. It has been shown that the concept of subjective well-being is adequately described by the parameter of need satisfaction, the indicator of which is positive emotions. A model of subjective well-being is considered, which takes into account the difference between the hedonistic component characterized by a measure of satisfaction with universal basic needs determined by material and other resources, and the eudemonistic component characterising success in achieving individual meaningful life goals. The article provides an analysis of the fact that a person's well-being is determined both through an assessment or self-assessment of his or her social status and situation, his or her ideas about the possibility and feasibility of achieving the desired goal. On this basis, a two-level model of subjective well-being is proposed, distinguishing between an affective component, such as an assessment of an individual's emotional balance at the time of measurement and a cognitive component, which characterises the assessment of quality of life in general, the degree of subjectivity and reasonableness in achieving a person's life goals.

Views: 397

Continue Reading

Enterprises and Ecosystems: Features’ Relational Analysis

Enterprises and Ecosystems: Features’ Relational Analysis

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The article deals with the analysis of the organizational and institutional differences between the enterprises and ecosystems given in relational key and with the use of four-typed system language of G.B.Kleiner, applied for description of institutions as well. Features of different business-ecosystems with indication of dominated characteristics are analyzed which are as follows: innovation-oriented industrial clusters as objective systems, technological platforms as environmental systems, networks as processed systems and business-incubators as projective systems. An evolutionary logic of the enterprise development is presented with accent on two aspects: existential (enterprises are treated as existing objects, legal entities, as a rule, entering into explicit contractual relations and/or practicing implicit relations within themselves) and transactional (mattered in inter-firm interactions or relations between existing or potential elements of hybrid structures). Other logic connects to networks, especially, innovative – principally non-hierarchical structures, relied on the information power provided by the new technological paradigm. It is confirmed that the main difference between competing and functioning in market environment enterprises and such acting in the frame of ecosystems is the studied in the paper enterprises form functional unity with all types of ecosystems, however with different degree of intensity of this unity connection.

Views: 428

Continue Reading

Why Mandatory Mass Testing for COVID-19 is a Poor Policy

Why Mandatory Mass Testing for COVID-19 is a Poor Policy

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

In this note I describe simple logic behind COVID-19 mass testing, which explains why any underlying policy is economically unsubstantiated. The application of basic probability theory shows that unless the testing accuracy is close to a hundred percent, even a small number of false positives introduces significant bias into random tests making them extremely unreliable, which is further aggravated by the presence of false negatives. For example, at 5% false positive rate, for a random person living in the USA without any symptoms or previous contact with infected people, the likelihood of actually having COVID-19 after testing positive is only 32.63%. This probability increases with lower false positive rates and higher infection rates. Still, at 3% false positive rate, a randomly selected person only in 12 states will have a probability higher than 50% (up to 56%) of having COVID-19 after testing positive. Assuming independence of tests, in some states (e.g. Vermont) a person who has no reason to suspect the disease may need to test a dozen times to make sure that he/she is actually sick.

Views: 459

Continue Reading

Public Regulation Evolution of Local Public Goods in the Housing Economy (on the Example of the Major Renovation of Apartment Buildings in Russia)

Public Regulation Evolution of Local Public Goods in the Housing Economy (on the Example of the Major Renovation of Apartment Buildings in Russia)

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

Residents of an apartment building become participants in situations of local public goods associated with the maintenance and use of common property, including major renovation of common property in the house. The solution of the social dilemmas arising in this case is possible both through the intervention of a third party – the state, and through the self-organization of the participants. The article attempts to trace the evolution of government intervention in the production of local public goods in the housing economy in Russia and to identify the prospects for the further development of government regulation in the field of major renovation of apartment buildings. The empirical basis of the study is the regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation that regulate the management of common property in the housing sector since the 1990s. so far, forecasting and analytical documents of the federal and regional level, the activities of state institutions in this area. It was revealed that the declared guidelines of the state housing policy for the development of self-organization of homeowners in apartment buildings did not receive the necessary incentives for real implementation at different time stages. The modern highly centralized system of organizing major renovation of apartment buildings in Russia turned out to be its logical consequence, generating significant financial and material flows of private resources under the direct control and management of the state through a system of regional major renovation funds.

Views: 412

Continue Reading

Institutionalization of Digital Public Administration Design: the Reflexive Potential of Agents of Change

Institutionalization of Digital Public Administration Design: the Reflexive Potential of Agents of Change

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The current stage of digital transformation of public administration involves a combination of technological, economic, and institutional –political factors that are more focused on ensuring organizational readiness to implement changes. The institutional role of change agents is increasing. Digital transformation managers, digital commissioners, and professions that are fundamentally new to the public administration system are designed to ensure the successful implementation of digital technologies in the management process. The article is devoted to the study of the mission of specialists in digital transformation in the implementation of the state program "Digital economy". They are responsible for implementing the principles of agile project management, the core values of open government - service-orientation, self-support, self-organization, and proactive interaction with citizens. The results of the study show that the institutional role of change agents is to enhance reflexivity – the main feature of the digital public governance.

Views: 401

Continue Reading

Institutional Traps and Interest Groups in the Sphere of Education and Science

Institutional Traps and Interest Groups in the Sphere of Education and Science

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

The article is devoted to study of institutional traps of optimization in education and science spheres. Our analysis also identifies the role of key actors or groups of interests in education sphere in reproduction of aforesaid institutional traps. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate identified institutional traps and groups of interests with help of narratives that were generated in the course of organized focus-groups with university stuff. This article is based on previous research where key institutional traps in education sphere were identified and described. This paper continues the analysis of following institutional traps: metrics trap, the trap of increasing bureaucracy, the trap of financing gap, the trap of electronisation and digitalisation, the trap of reducing the quality of education, the trap of human resources and justifies the efficiency of focus groups research method for detection groups of interests as real or potential actors of institutional changes. This method enables to find out the existing contradictions inside the groups and as a consequence to deepen the understanding of the nature of studied institutional traps and propose recommendations for overcoming the negative effects of it.

Views: 396

Continue Reading

Formation of Alternative Approaches to the Modern Reform of Higher Education

Formation of Alternative Approaches to the Modern Reform of Higher Education

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

One of the general factors that determined the direction of development and, at the same time, large-scale reform of higher education in many countries of the world was the widespread use of various technologies of new public management (NPM) as modern and popular management tools in public sector. Their application was supported and substantiated by the ideology of the new managerialism, which involves the active use of these technologies, along with stimulating the development of a competitive environment through quasi-market institutional approaches. The success of reforming higher education should be linked with the readiness to overcome these traps by significantly adjusting the vector of strategic changes, which should take into account the peculiarities of the logic of the functioning and reproduction of the professional academic community, involve it in the development of strategies for the development of universities, and the development of approaches to assess the effectiveness of their activities. The emergence of the number of institutional traps, stable self-replicating institutional norms, which generally negatively affect the results of higher education's functioning, are tested as negative side effects of the modern reforms. There are the traps of metrics, budget underfunding, human resources, bureaucratization, informatization and digitalization, and others. The values and expectations of the academic community, the features of the professional activities of its various components should be taken into account.

Views: 464

Continue Reading

Gender Differences in the Subjective Well-Being of Research and Teaching Staff

Gender Differences in the Subjective Well-Being of Research and Teaching Staff

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

Subjective well-being is a new cognitive-affective indicator of socio-economic success of individuals that affects the effectiveness of their professional activities. The authors of the article investigate this phenomenon in the academic sphere, offering to analyze the gender specifics of the subjective well-being of research and teaching staff. The aim of the study is to compare the subjective well-being of research and teaching staff depending on gender, and to review theoretical approaches to research on subjective well-being. Based on the reflection of the previous stages of the study, the authors developed a methodological construct that includes an assessment of the subjective well-being of the academic staff of Russian universities through the analysis of affective and cognitive components. When developing research tools (online questionnaires), we used the emotional balance scale N. We also used questions from the European social survey (ESS) (measuring the overall perception of happiness and life values) and the VTSIOM monitoring study (self-assessment of financial situation). In the course of the study, the authors determined the specificity of subjective well-being on the basis of gender differences in the academic field that manifest the subjective assessment of affective (emotional balance of positive and negative emotions, subjective assessment of well-being in the context of the current period) and a cognitive component of subjective well-being: the value-rational component (assessment of their freedom, a sense of meaning in life, having goals and activities that define the meaning of life, etc.), goal-rational component (overall rating of quality of life, assessment of socio-economic and political institutions, satisfaction with the professional sphere). The assessment of subjective well-being of academic staff in Russian universities with regard to professional determinants (awareness of the value and purpose of professional activities, the status of the profession in society, the status of the institution, opportunity for professional development, self-development, academic freedom, relations, professional communication, work schedule, sabbaticals, precariatization (reporting, administrative burden).

Views: 446

Continue Reading

Gender-Specific Aspects of Precariat

Gender-Specific Aspects of Precariat

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 11 (no. 4),

One of the most vulnerable groups presented in precariat in addition to graduate students are women. Thanks to the importance of their social role as mother women are forced to enter into non-stable, short- term employment relationships with lower remuneration and lower level of career opportunities than man have. Relevance of this problem is often demonstrated in Mass media, in research and discussions of such important global institutions as World Bank, International Labor Organization, The World Economic Forum. These organizations also provide us with important statistical data about gender discrimination around the world including preparation of annual reports such as Women, Business and The Law and also the preparation of indexes of gender equality. This data enables to evaluate the level of gender equality in the labor market around the world and estimate the peculiarities of different countries in sphere of legislative regulation of gender discrimination. The analysis of these laws and other limitations will help us to identify main obstacles that prevent women to work at the same jobs and the same positions as men do and as a consequence to influence women’s choice in favour of unstable or precarious job positions.

Views: 400

Continue Reading