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Painful Points of Russian Strategic Development

Painful Points of Russian Strategic Development

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 3),

The paper examines the external dependence of the Russian economy in the context of foreign sanctions, the withdrawal of capital from the Russian Federation abroad, the implemented management models of the largest domestic companies (mining sector, banks, retail, communications) and the attraction of cheap labor resources in the interests of domestic business. The thesis that a significant segment of the national economy does not de facto belong to the country is substantiated. It is determined that foreign citizens are allowed to make important corporate decisions at the system level, including attracting foreign labor and withdrawing capital abroad. The example of PJSC "Magnit" shows the replacement of Russian management with a foreign one in the context of the sanctions imposed against the Russian Federation. It is estimated that as of the end of 2020, about 50% of the country's GDP has been accumulated and placed abroad in the form of direct and portfolio investments from the Russian Federation. The response measures taken in the Russian Federation to foreign sanctions pressure could not reverse this negative situation. The replacement of the indigenous population of the Russian Federation by labor migrants with their gradual consolidation on the territory of the country in the future may lead to social and political risks that can manifest themselves most extensively during the internal crisis. The implementation of a nationally oriented scenario of socio-economic development remains difficult. This course of development can be implemented if the current model of the functioning of the national economy changes.

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Economic Mechanisms of Family Policy in Russia in The Context of The COVID-19 Pandemic

Economic Mechanisms of Family Policy in Russia in The Context of The COVID-19 Pandemic

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 3),

The increasing decline in the population of Russia during the pandemic period has caused a new wave of measures to support the population, especially families with children. The article decomposes the existing family policy in Russia, highlighting the prevailing economic mechanisms for stimulating the birth rate and supporting marriage; an analysis of a set of family policy measures was carried out for their adequacy to the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, and recommendations were made to improve the mechanisms of family policy in Russia in order to increase their effectiveness. It is shown that state measures to support marriage and fertility both at the federal and regional levels are characterized by fragmentation and proceed from the narrative of a traditional large family, which is de facto also low-income. In general, family policy focuses on the federal level of support, while the regional level is virtually absent. The complex of economic mechanisms of family policy is characterized, and their emphasis on quantitative support of the birth rate is shown; the proposed measures are not strictly focused on marriage. Most of the designated conditions of the federal center are focused on children and motherhood, without affecting the specific circumstances of the family as a union of a man and a woman. A grouping of measures by regional authorities to prevent the negative consequences of COVID-19 and proposals for the participation of regions in the implementation of the economic mechanisms of family policy in Russia are presented.

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The Social Security System in China: Historical Approach

The Social Security System in China: Historical Approach

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 3),

This article discusses the stages and characteristics of social security in China within the framework of the historical approach. Although the institutional practice of the social security system appeared in ancient China in the early 20th century, some elements of social security have already existed in ancient China in the Western Zhou period. The social security system was formed in a long historical period from Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty. This system was dif-ferent from the western countries and had a complex ideological basis. It was based on the traditional elements like country, folk, culture, religion, family, clan, and others. With the alternation of dynasties, social security still has the characte-ristics of locality, national responsibility, cultural characteristics, the role of the family, and other fundamental characteristics. This system of protection is based on social assistance and continues its importance so far. The historical approach has identified key stages and the traditional institutional practices of social securi-ty, which the Chinese system of social support for the poor relies upon.

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Integration Mechanisms of Universities and Real Economy Sector

Integration Mechanisms of Universities and Real Economy Sector

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 3),

In the modern world, the role of universities is changing dramatically and a new model of their participation in the economy is being formed. The essence of the new model is an immeasurably closer integration of universities with enterprises and organizations of the real sector of the economy. Universities that reject this model will no longer be able to be full participants in the higher education market. In this regard, many Russian universities are forced to look for new mechanisms of interaction with economic entities of the regional economy. The article summarizes and systematizes the most successful practices of Russian universities on the creation and use of integration mechanisms with companies, enterprises and departments of the regions. For this purpose, examples of such promising institutions are considered, such as research and educational centers and infrastructure initiatives; supporting universities and network initiatives; targeted training and practice-oriented programs; integration of production and education on the site of universities (training centers); partial integration of production and education on the site of enterprises (basic departments); full integration of production and education at the enterprise site (outsourcing); entrepreneurial universities and a model of global academic partnership; the institute of unique scientific collaborations and Collective Use Centers. The analysis of this experience allowed us to draw the general contours of a new model of a practice-oriented university.

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Institution of Higher Education and Science as a Factor of Economic Development

Institution of Higher Education and Science as a Factor of Economic Development

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 3),

The modern economy is undergoing a structural transformation that enhances the role of knowledge and technology for economic development. Knowledge and technologies are created by researchers who received professional training in universities. The higher education system in Russia is changing similar to those in Western countries earlier. Institutional design should analyse knowledge about management routines, values, working rules, and the functioning of the institutional environment. The institutions operating in society can be identified by studying the narratives of the actors and the explanations for their actions. In the article, the in-depth interview is used for studying institutional changes in education and science. Data collected in projects «Identification of institutions and organizational mechanisms for the merger of universities in the context of the socio-economic development of the region» (10 interviews) and «Institutional traps of optimization of the sphere of education and science» (20 interviews, 3 expert focus group interviews). The narrative analysis identified interest groups in education and science that are involved in the functioning of institutional traps. The presence of special interest groups is an integral attribute of institutional traps that arise in conditions of quasi-optimal equilibrium. Combining research data shows the importance of the institution of higher education and science for economic development.

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Educational and Industrial Clusters in The System of Secondary Vocational Education for Implementing Regional Economic Policy

Educational and Industrial Clusters in The System of Secondary Vocational Education for Implementing Regional Economic Policy

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 3),

The article examines the forms of interaction between the state, business and educational organizations in order to train personnel with secondary vocational education for the needs of the modern economy. It is generally recognized that for the successful development of the economy of any state and its constituent regions, a sufficient number of working personnel is needed, the level of training of which corresponds to the level of development of the productive forces. In the absence of a dialogue between the state system of personnel training and representatives of industrial enterprises, the implementation of this task is very difficult. After all, it is the enterprises that form the need for labor. In addition, the current pace of technological progress sets special requirements for the speed of entry into the labor market of specialists who have the skills to work on modern equipment. All this requires an immediate revision of approaches to the development of the vocational education system, constant updating of the material and technical base of professional educational organizations. The most successful is the cluster approach to the organization of the economic space of the regions. At the same time, such an approach is currently used only to combine the efforts of the state, business and scientific institutions in order to introduce the results of scientific developments into the activities of economic entities. In this regard, this study suggests considering the possibility of creating educational and industrial clusters as an institution that unites the interests of the state, business and educational organizations on the basis of partnership agreements. In addition, the article offers a set of tax preferences in order to encourage industry enterprises to invest in the system of secondary vocational education.

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Labor Markets in Resource-Type Regions

Labor Markets in Resource-Type Regions

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 3),

The modern economic literature has accumulated enough data indicating that labor markets have local specifics, and a single all-Russian labor market is an abstraction. Therefore, the characterization of the Russian labor market as a system of separate regional markets is very important. The purpose of this paper is to determine the functional characteristics of the labor markets of resource-type regions, to identify the features of their state. We used Rosstat data for 2005–2006, 2008, 2013, 2016–2019, as well as microdata from a sample labor force survey conducted by Rosstat in 2019. It is shown that the factor of resource dependence has some effect on the parameters of regional labor markets, but only in combination with other factors (climatic, demographic, spatial, structural and sectoral). In various regions the influence of this factors can be very different. The cluster analysis made it possible to identify some effects of the influence of the resource dependence on labor markets. Firstly, only a very high level of resource dependence of regions is accompanied by a positive and complex influence on regional labor markets. Secondly, resource dependence of regions provides labor market parameters at least at the national average. From the point of view of state regulation labor markets in regions with a high level of resource dependence deserve special attention. At the same time, the main area of activity should be efforts to diversify the economy at the expense of resource rent. This requires the development of new approaches to the interaction of regional authorities with mining companies based in resource-type regions.

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