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The Plurality of Institutional Approaches and Difficulties of Scholarly Communication

The Plurality of Institutional Approaches and Difficulties of Scholarly Communication

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 1),

Over the past decades, the development of institutional studies has become one of the main directions in the social sciences. Does everything in the organization of science contribute to this research? The main objective of the article is to analyze and assess factors that can have a negative impact on the growth of scientific knowledge about institutions. The first section discusses approaches to the growth of scientific knowledge, the role of scholarly communications in it, and the structure of the conceptual apparatus of scientific research programs. Some features of the competition among research programs that might hinder the growth of knowledge are also analyzed in the first section. The second section examines the variety of institutional approaches and manifold research initiatives and communication processes that derive from them. The third section is devoted to the analysis of microfoundations in economics and organizational science. In the fourth section we analyze approaches to the study of various economic institutions within the framework of organizational institutionalism. The features of the conceptual apparatus of organizational institutional theory and the specifics of its impact on the implemented approaches to the microfoundations of institutions are characterized. It is assumed that the research program of organizational institutionalism contains composite concepts with a heterogeneous content, it may result in the lack of operational definitions. This feature, together with the limited scholarly communications, determines the presence of artificial scientific problems which hinder the growth of scientific knowledge both in the framework of this research program and in the study of institutions in general.

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Creating The Theory of Economic Interaction and Coordination: The Main Issues

Creating The Theory of Economic Interaction and Coordination: The Main Issues

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 1),

The paper examines the most well-known scientific approaches to interaction between economic agents. The author gives a definition of the term “coordination” and develops criteria for a basic taxonomy of methods of economic interaction. The above-mentioned criteria enable researchers to describe ideal (pure) methods of coordination. These are (a) routines (based on fixed patterns of behaviour), (b) norms (based on formal and informal rules and standards), (c) pricing (based on cost-benefit analysis), (d) roles (based on mutual expectations in a society), (e) administration (based on orders, tasks and instructions), (f) consensus (based on mutual agreement), (g) surveillance (decision-making based on information about other agents). The author explains that interaction between economic agents always rests on a combination of several coordination methods, whereas these combinations vary from one field of interaction to another. The last part of the paper describes the author’s own vision of leading and auxiliary coordination methods that prevail in various fields of interaction under different regulation systems.

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Divine Proportion of The Invisible Hand: a New Look at Adam Smith’s Natural Theology

Divine Proportion of The Invisible Hand: a New Look at Adam Smith’s Natural Theology

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 1),

Recent research on labor-search-leisure model has described local multiple equilibria of Invisible hand under wage and price dispersion. This paper analyzes the general competitive equilibrium, where the Invisible hand creates harmonic proportions of mutually beneficial exchange. The analysis results in the rigorous mathematical proof that at the general competitive equilibrium both the marginal rate of substitution of leisure for consumption and marginal rate of transformation of production into services are equal to the golden ratio conjugate, whereas both the intensity of consumption and the sales-costs of production ratio are equal to the golden ratio itself, also called the divine proportion. On commodity market the golden ratio conjugate equalizes the gravitation or attractiveness of both seller and buyer. Local monopoly and monopsony disappear, and the competitive equilibrium really becomes perfect. In marriage markets the golden ratio conjugate equalizes the attractiveness of both man and woman and creates the ideal family. These results bring us back to the theological grounds of Adam Smith’s works; it gives a new view on his idea of natural rates of both wages and profit. It really can be argued that there was a good reason to apply the natural theology approach to the analysis of exchange at times of the ‘Wealth of Nations’.

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Sabotage of Russian Officials and Main Measures to Combat It

Sabotage of Russian Officials and Main Measures to Combat It

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 1),

The results of testing the hypotheses put forward in the work suggest that, firstly, foreign measures are poorly applicable to eliminate sabotage by Russian officials and there is a need to develop individual measures to combat sabotage in the Russian civil service. Secondly, purposeful work on a systematic fight against sabotage of civil servants is not yet being carried out. The extremely poor knowledge of the identified problem set tasks aimed at expanding the objects of research, drawing conclusions about the current state of sabotage in the domestic civil service. The main results were obtained by analyzing the literature and researching surveys of civil servants at the federal and regional levels, conducted by other scientists. At the same time, the emphasis is on studying the opinions of experts, former and current officials, and on their basis, conclusions are drawn about the current state of sabotage in the Russian civil service. As a result, new and refined measures are proposed to combat sabotage of Russian civil servants (organize courts of honor; eliminate overtime unpaid work of civil servants; adjust the regulations for the work of officials; provide non-material benefits to civil servants that reduce the value of rest for them; introduce classical schemes for combating shirking in the civil service, borrowing them from commercial structures; to reduce staff turnover; to increase the attractiveness of the civil service; to establish standards for anti-sabotage behavior). It seems that the questions raised in this article will allow future researchers to better understand the directions of potential research in the field of sabotage of officials, to compose representative questionnaires and identify the right questions for in-depth interviews of civil servants in this area, to develop other measures to improve the management of civil service in the Russian Federation.

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The Impact of Non-Rooted Social Institutions on The Development of National and Regional Innovation Systems

The Impact of Non-Rooted Social Institutions on The Development of National and Regional Innovation Systems

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 1),

Regional innovation systems (RIS) not only develop local policies to expand regional science, technology, and innovation capabilities at the firm level, but also promote informal and formal institutional and organizational innovation. Thence, it appears crucial to analyse the similarities and differences of regional innovation systems and to explore the complexity of developing and implementing innovation policies on the ground in different regional innovation systems while noting important policy implications for regional innovation management and institutional arrangements for updating them systematically. Our paper demonstrates that when organizations and business companies wish to immerse themselves into the social and business environment, they have to devise tools and mechanisms aimed at supporting the development and implementation of regional social innovations which enhance the processes of the social responsibility. Our paper offers a comprehensive discussion that focuses on the national and regional innovation systems, their macrostructure, as well as their profile. Based on the ranking of the Global Innovation Index, we select the countries from the groups with different income levels and analyse them with respect to the impact of non-rooted social institutions (R&D, education, funds, public infrastructure, etc.) on the development of national and regional innovation systems. Our results yield the interdependence between the creation of clusters or the building of innovative ecosystems and the effectiveness of the economic and social development fostered by the innovation processes emerging in these systems.

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Reputation and Trust in The Russian Public Procurement System

Reputation and Trust in The Russian Public Procurement System

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 1),

In this paper, based on a massive online survey of public procurers and suppliers, we analyzed the features of building trust in new counterparties in the Russian public procurement system. Despite the widespread opinion about the low level of trust in Russia, the analysis showed that trust in new counterparties is characteristic of a significant share of public procurers and suppliers. To identify positive and negative factors that form trust in new counterparties, regression models were built both for procurers and for suppliers. Focus on the corporate reputation of the counterparty turned out to be the most significant factor influencing the level of trust in new counterparties. The importance of corporate reputation for direct participants of the procurement process confirms the relevance of issues related to the development and implementation of tools for recording reputation in public procurement. At the same time, previous conflicts with counterparties, as well as problems in the implementation of contracts common in the industry, have a negative impact on trust in new counterparties. For Russian public procurers and suppliers, the willingness to trust new counterparties was positively associated with a higher assessment of procurement efficiency at the micro level, which confirms the importance of strengthening the “culture of trust” in the Russian public procurement system, developing an institutional environment that promotes the formation of trust between direct market participants.

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Institutional Framework for The Development of Artificial Intelligence in The Industry

Institutional Framework for The Development of Artificial Intelligence in The Industry

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 1),

The article is devoted to the institutions of dissemination and application of artificial intelligence in industry. Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently one of the most dynamically developing technologies and outcomes of the Fourth Industrial Revolution with a huge transformational impact on the economy. The article further confirms the inclusion of this technology in all industrial frontiers of recent years. In industry, artificial intelligence has a high potential of use with prodigious positive effects, but this potential and positive results are limited by insufficiently designed institutional framework for the development of artificial intelligence. To establish a way of institutionalizing AI in industry, the article systematizes the drivers and limiting factors of its cost-effective deployment in industrial companies. Based on this, the authors outlined a conceptual institutional framework for artificial intelligence in industry, including institutions of different levels as well as formal and informal institutions. The stimulating and limiting function of institutions in the deployment of AI is considered from the strategic perspective and operational regulation. The article substantiates the priority of artificial intelligence legislation, which goes beyond both individual countries and institutional conditions focused on a specific technology. It is necessary to develop the digital economy, activate innovations, create a competitive environment, etc. The authors have confirmed the importance of a broader institutional context of economic and technological development in the context of Industry 4.0. The article also pays attention to industry standards and ethical standards for the dissemination of artificial intelligence. At the same time, the influence of the institute of trust, partnerships, and digital corporate culture on the adoption and deployment of artificial intelligence technologies in industrial companies is taken into account. It is determined that, to understand and accept AI (include it into decision-making processes and business practices), institutions are required to make technologies more understandable for perception.

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