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Institution of Regional Strategies in The Russian Innovation System

Institution of Regional Strategies in The Russian Innovation System

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

The purpose of the article is to identify the features and problems specific to regional innovation strategies in Russia. The regional innovation strategy is to be interpreted as a formal institution designed to intensify innovation activity in the regional economy. The success of the strategy implementation depends on institutional and resource factors, including those at a higher, federal level. But this does not eliminate the issue of the regional innovation strategy optimal design (formulation, construction). The paper presents a brief overview of research on regional innovation development in Russia. Six regions (Kurgan region, city of Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod region, Novosibirsk region, Republic of Tatarstan, Rostov region) were selected for in-depth analysis of the innovation strategies content. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the comparison of the results of the regional innovation strategies analysis and the results of the analysis of regional innovation activities narratives expressed by the Russian innovation system actors. Regional innovation development strategies are aimed at solving the innovation development problems that have been identified by policy makers. However, these problems are also reflected in the studied before narratives of the Russian innovation system actors. The paper summarizes these problems and identifies some of the features specific to the regional innovation strategies of the selected regions.

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Features of New Institutions in The Digital Economy

Features of New Institutions in The Digital Economy

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

Digital trust and, simultaneously, global distrust became a topical issue in the context of modern trends in the socioeconomic systems development: informatization, internetization, networkization, digitalization. A. Guterres asserts global distrust as one of the four “horsemen of the apocalypse” that threaten all of humanity at the present time. Vulnerability of Russia's positions in the global information and digital space, represented in the predominance of foreign (primarily Western) software and Chinese hardware, cyber-attacks on strategic infrastructure facilities, leaks and the actual vulnerability of personal data of the population (often almost unhindered access for fraudsters to the personal data of residents and non-residents), actualizes the need to strengthen national information security and, therefore, the perspective of the article. A research of digital trust, coupled with artificial intelligence and cyber, information and digital economic security, is conducted based on the methods of institutional-economic, interdisciplinary, empirical generalization, interpretation of new economic institutions and concepts, hypothesizing and scientific approach to the analysis of a new digital socio-economic reality. The research results are, firstly, a confirmed relationship between digital trust and digital economic security; second, digital trust and artificial intelligence; third, digital distrust and institutional traps in the context of artificial intelligence; fourth, the institutional aspects of AI on the example of China. The authorial hypothesis is formulated as the following: are destructive institutions and institutional-economic thinking formed in the context of the economy and society digitalization, the development of a Russian digital economy model with conflicting institutions? The novelty of the study involves clarifying the definitions of the institution of trust, digital global distrust, as well as digital institutional traps, the level of digital trust (for business, the abovementioned is reflected in building a trust system in supply chains, measured in terms of user confidence in information and digital goods, in the protection of personal data, their confidentiality).

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Ritual Economy, or How Much Is Spent on A Wedding in Central Asia

Ritual Economy, or How Much Is Spent on A Wedding in Central Asia

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

The article describes the rituals that form a complex of wedding traditions in the countries of Central Asia. We are talking about rites (pre-wedding, wedding and post-wedding) and related expenses. Observance of traditions imposes heavy financial obligations on the families of the bride and groom, driving them into credit burden and depriving them of economic well-being for many years. Why do families participate in this wasteful excess? What drives them? The article focuses on decoding the institute of Central Asian wedding. The article is based on interviews with students from Central Asian countries studying in Moscow. Arrival in Moscow indicates a willingness to accept values conventionally called "Western". Representatives of the westernized youth critically evaluate the economy of weddings, seeing no sense in following traditions that condemn families to excessive waste. In their opinion, the reproduction of the ritual economy is supported by public opinion and is based on the fear of the family to spoil the reputation. The wedding turns into an act of demonstrative generosity, which confirms the social status of families.Students reconstruct the logic of parents in terms of being forced to follow certain rules under vigilant social control: the rule of the reciprocal exchange of gifts; demonstration of social status and maintaining the prestige of the family; competition between the families of the bride and groom; confirmation of membership in a related clan; showing loyalty within the official hierarchy, investing in a career. Despite the legislative restrictions on the scale of weddings adopted in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan no impressive results have been achieved. The discrepancy between social expectations threaten to turn into reputational losses. People continue to pay tribute to the requirements of the ritual economy, going to all sorts of tricks in order not to fall under the sanctions of the state

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Specific Skills and Its Assessment in A New Institutional Context: Discussions, Challenges and Prospects

Specific Skills and Its Assessment in A New Institutional Context: Discussions, Challenges and Prospects

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

The search for new drivers of global socio-economic development in the face of a slowdown (partially due to the COVID-19) put the issues of skills development, including institutional solutions of the human capital formation, at the front line. Despite significant progress in understanding the importance of general skills and their contribution to economic growth, professional skills as the pivot of specific human capital are commonly analyzed through the vague categories like formal qualification and years of tenure. The lack of an institutionalized and commonly accepted practice for measuring professional skills restrains research in economics dealing with returns to skills, as well as institutional studies. The present study aims to partially fill this gap by analyzing the discussion about professional skills in broader discourse about skills and systematizing the existing approaches to professional skills’ assessments, as well as by mapping the prospects in the context of emerging digital technologies and institutional change attributed to them. The analysis was conducted on academic papers and reports published in 2013–2020. The research showed that although the number of academic papers focusing on professional skills is high, the discussion (especially, about assessment) is fragmented reflecting industries’ specifics. The mainstream expert discussion on skills and their assessment tends to focus on general skills, overlooking professional skills, with partial exception of certain digital skills. Discussion largely grounds on traditional approaches, which cannot produce scalable and comparable results for further economic analysis. At the same time, new digital assessment tools are not yet widely disseminated. There is a need for further improvement and expansion of traditional skills assessments via exams or tests, alongside with searching for novel approaches to measuring skills acquired and being used on the workplace. This could also contribute to the institutional studies dealing with the research of transformations happened in corporate, national, and international level.

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Social Contract in Russia: Before and After 2022

Social Contract in Russia: Before and After 2022

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

The article considers the problem of cardinal revision of the social contract (SC) between the Russian society and the supreme power, which emerged as a result of the global transformation of the geopolitical system in 2022. The shifts that have begun mark a radical change in the mode of governance of the country. The subject of the article is the general contours, content and logic of the new SC; the methodological basis is institutional theory, the paradigm of historical narratives and philosophical concepts of social orientation. The revised SC includes the following requirements: new ideology; definition of the country's economic structure; provision of professional social elevators and personal responsibility; integration of the Bank of Russia into the general government system; economy debureaucratization; fight against extreme forms of inequality; cessation of uncontrolled immigration; and introduction of responsibility for political sabotage. The bearing structure of the new SC is the ideology of the Russian Civilization, which is determined by the disclosure of the following issues: concept, slogan, economic and social foundations, philosophical foundations, values, international status and the domestic perception. To determine the attitudes of Russians towards the idea of the Russian Civilization, a spontaneous conversation method was developed, which allowed to establish the "psychological triangle effect", the essence of which consists in the presence of three phases of perception of the idea — rejection, acceptance and use.

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Russia's Forest Sector After The Years of Reforms: More Laws, but Less Order?

Russia's Forest Sector After The Years of Reforms: More Laws, but Less Order?

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

The article discusses the impact of the growing intensity of normative activity in the forestry complex of Russia on the efficiency of the industry. Estimates show that over the last decade and a half, various ministries and departments have adopted at least 400 normative documents regulating various spheres of forest relations. Meanwhile, even without analyzing the statistics, it is clear that such a vigorous normative activity hardly leads to prosperity of the national forestry complex, and certainly does little to help solve the most important problems of forestry, which is especially evident against the background of steadily growing from year to year forest fires and the accompanying damage. We propose a way to reconstruct a long time series volume of logging from official statistics on the export of wood, which was available before 2009. By the example of Siberian regions according to the data for 2005–2020 year regression models panel data are built, providing evidence in favor of the fact that the intensity of rule-making has a negative impact on the amount of timber harvest. It is proposed to fundamentally revise the approaches to the regulation of the forest industry, abandoning the adoption of redundant regulations in favor of government complicity in solving the problems of Russian forests, which have accumulated for many decades.

Views: 196

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Game-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Collective Labor Incentives for Regional Civil Servants in Russia

Game-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Collective Labor Incentives for Regional Civil Servants in Russia

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

Currently, a number of external factors (in particular, sanctions pressure from the US and EU countries, the pandemic of a new coronavirus infection) have a strong negative impact on the socio-economic development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Therefore, the head of almost any Russian region is forced to perform the functions of an anti-crisis manager. The modern system of stimulating the work of civil regional employees can help improve the efficiency of public administration, and as a result, ensure the socio-economic development of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation. The author's approach to this issue is based on the simultaneous application of a number of modern scientific methods, namely index, neural network technologies and mathematical game theory. The use of neural network technologies makes it possible to objectively assess the achieved level of socio-economic development of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation. Taking into account the positive foreign (Singapore and South Korean) experience in the field of civil service reform, it is proposed to make the amount of collective incentive payments (bonus fund) of regional civil servants directly dependent on the achieved level of socio-economic development of the subject of the Russian Federation. In turn, this implies the development of a hierarchical system of collective-individual stimulation of the work of regional civil servants. During the construction of the game-theoretic model, the correct establishment of the relationship between the level of collective incentive payments to regional civil servants and the socio-economic development of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation is ensured. After experimental refinement of the parameters of the game-theoretic model, there is a possibility of its practical application to stimulate the work of regional civil servants in Russia. The introduction of the author's approach into the practice of regional management, firstly, will allow coordinating the activities of ministries and departments, and secondly, will strengthen control over the targeted spending of budgetary funds on bonus payments to civil civil servants.

Views: 268

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Efficient Public Procurement and The Role of Competition

Efficient Public Procurement and The Role of Competition

Journal of Institutional Studies, , Vol. 14 (no. 3),

The authors explain why accurate conclusions on public procurement efficiency are impossible in light of the current formal rules of the public contractual system. In regulatory acts, efficiency is replaced with saving and effectiveness - concepts that have different meaning and do not focus on the scale of transaction costs associated with contract conclusion and execution. Since assessing public procurement efficiency has no economic meaning outside the interests of particular actors, achieving the indicators specified in the Budget Code of the Russian Federation is not indicative of the desirable vector of development and result interpretation. In this case, control over efficient satisfaction of public needs is replaced with attaining the metrics (pseudo-objectives) and procedural compliance, which increases the regulator' influence. Multiple control parameters lead to adverse selection of the stuff of customer's contractual services and affect the quality of procured goods. Quasi- market competition based on directive buyer- seller interaction gives the appearance of fair transactions but does not stimulate efficiency or saving of public financial resources against transaction costs. Fair procedures designed to protect competitors from each other do not allow to build up trust-based interactions within the contractual system and engage supplier's reputation as well as establish long-term economic relations. To further develop the contractual system in Russia, would be useful to have a legal definition of public procurement efficiency and give the criteria for achieving it or rejecting procedural regulation.

Views: 234

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